Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Geography (215)
GEO 131 (6)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Textbook Notes.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
GEO 131
David Atkinson

GEO 131 Chapter 4 Textbook Notes Energy and Ecosystems Intro - external source of energy is solar energy, which is stored mainly in biomass and heat - solar energy is absorbed by green plants and algae and utilized to fix carbon dioxide and water into simple sugars, through a process known as photosynthesis - basis for most organisms and ecosystems The Nature of Energy - work is defined as the result of a force being applied over a distance Forms of Energy Electromagnetic Energy - ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY associated with photons which are entities with properties of both particles and waves that travel through space at a constant speed of 3 x 10 8 m/s - Exists in a continuous spectrum of wavelengths [SHORTEST TO LONGEST] GAMMA, X-RAY, ULTRAVIOLET, VISIBLE LIGHT, INFRARED, MIRCROWAVE AND RADIO Kinetic Energy - KINETIC ENEGY associated with motion - MECHANICAL KINETIC ENERGY associated with objects in motion - THEMERAL KINETIC ENERGY rate of vibration of atoms or molecules, also known as HEAT Potential Energy - POTENTIAL ENERGY is the stored ability to perform work - GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY results from the attractive forces between objects [gravity] - CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY is stored in the bonds between atoms with molecules - ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY results from differences in the quantity of electrons - Electrons flow from areas of high density to areas of low density - COMPRESSED GAS also store potential energy which can do work when gases are allowed to expand - NUCLEAR POTENTIAL ENERGY results from extremely strong binding forces that exist within atoms, densest form of energy - FISSION RACTIONS involve the splitting of isotopes of certain heavy atoms - FUSION REACTIONS involve the combing of certain light elements, such as hydrogen, to form heavier atoms under conditions of extremely high temperature and pressure while liberating huge quantities of energy Law of Thermodynamics - first law: law of conservation of energy o energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only undergo transformations - second law: o energy at the beginning of the transfer will be less than the energy that is the outcome (less energy at the end from the beginning > 90% energy loss) Earth: An Energy Flow through System - FLOW THROUGH SYSTEM: with an input of solar energy an output of re- radiated energy, and no net storage of energy Earth’s Physical Energy Budget - ENERGY BUDGET: of a given system describes the rates of
More Less

Related notes for GEO 131

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.