• The conventional unit of analysis of the global economy is the individual country.
• Virtually all the statistical data on production, trade, FDI and the like are
aggregated into national ‘boxes’.
• Such a level of statistical aggregation is less and less useful in light of the changes
occurring in the organization of economic activity
• We have to rely heavily on nationallevel data to explore the changing maps of
production, trade and FDI.
• national boundaries no longer ‘contain’ production processes in the way they once
• we need to find ways of getting below the national scale – to break out of the
constraints of the ‘national boxes’ in order to understand what is really going on
in the world.
• How we might proceed lies in the notion of connectivity.
• A diagnostic characteristic of contemporary globalization is that the component
parts of the world economy are increasingly interconnected in qualitatively
different ways from the past.
o The world economy consists of tangled webs of production circuits and