Textbook Notes (363,140)
Canada (158,217)
GMS 401 (200)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 401
Kirk Bailey

C HAPTER 7 – D ESIGN OF W ORK S YSTEMS INTRODUCTION AND JOB DESIGN - Work system design involves job design (content and method), determination of working conditions, work measurement, and compensation - Job design: specifying the content and method of a job. The objective of job design is to increase long-term productivity - Current practice in job design contains elements of two basic schools of thought. One is the efficiency school which emphasizes a systematic, logical approach to labour cost reduction; the other is called the behavioural school and emphasizes satisfaction of wants and need of workers as a motivator for increased productivity ⋅ Efficiency Approach - Efficiency approach includes specialization, methods analysis, and time standards - Specialization: focuses jobs to a narrow scope Advantages For Company: For Worker: 1. Simplifies Training 1. Low education and skill requirements 2. High productivity 2. Minimum responsibilities 3. Low wage costs 3. Little mental effort needed Disadvantages 1. Difficult to motivate quality 1. Boring 2. Worker dissatisfaction, possibly 2. Limited Opportunities for resulting in absenteeism, high advancement turnover, disruptive tactics 3. Little control over work 4. Little opportunity for self-fulfillment ⋅ Behavioural Approach - In effort to make jobs more interesting and meaningful, job designers frequently consider job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, and teams - Job enlargement: means giving a worker a larger portion of the total task of making the good or providing the service o This constitutes horizontal loading – the additional work is on the same level of skill and responsibility as the original job - Job Rotation: means having workers periodically exchange jobs o Broadens worker’s learning experience and enables them to fill in for others in the event of sickness or absenteeism - Job enrichment: involves an increase in the level of responsibility for planning and coordination o This constitutes vertical loading - Self-directed teams: sometimes referred to as an autonomous team, is a group of employees who perform the same function o They are empowered to make decisions involving their work as a group o The idea is that because they are the workers they should know what’s best for them o They tend to work harder to make sure their goals are achieved o Benefits: less managers are needed, higher quality, productivity, and worker satisfaction o However, some middle managers feel threated as teams assume more of their traditional functions M ETHODS A NALYSIS - Methods analysis: breaks down the job into a sequence of tasks and elements and tries to make it more efficient - The basic procedure in methods analysis is: 1. Identify the job to be studied and gather all pertinent facts about its operations, machines, equipment, materials, and so on 2. Discuss the job with the operator and supervisor 3. Analyze and document the present method of performing the job 4. Question the present methods and purpose a new method - Analyzing and improved methods is facilitated by the use of various charts such as process charts and worker-machine charts - Process charts: are used to review and examine the overall sequence of an operation by focusing on the movements of the operator or the flow of material o Experienced analysts usually develop a checklist of questions they ask themselves to generate ideas for improvements. Some questions are: 1. Why is there a delay, storage, or inspection at this point? 2. How can travel distances be shortened or avoided 3. Can an operation be eliminated? 4. Can the sequence of operations be changed 5. Can similar activities be grouped? 6. Would the use of additional r improved equipment be helpful? - Worker-machine chart: used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle o One use of this chart is to determine how many machines the operator can mange ⋅ Motion Study - Motion study: the systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation or a task - Purpose is to eliminate unnecessary motions and to identify the best sequence of motions for maximum efficiency - Usually, motion study is performed in conjunction with time study - The most used techniques that motion study analysts can use to develop efficient procedures are: 1. Motion economy principles 2. Analysis of elementary motions 3. Micro-motion (slow-motion video) study 4. Simultaneous hands motion chart - Motion economy principles: guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedures o Guidelines are divided into three categories  Use of arms and body  Arrangement of the workplace  Design of tools and equipment - Common basic elementary motions (elements for shorts) includes reach, grasp, move, and disengage o It make be hard describing a whole job using elements, but for short repetitive jobs, it can be justified - Micro-motion study: use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze - Simo chart: a chart that shows the elementary motions performed by each hand, side-by- side, over time o Seeing which motions can be eliminated or how to make some motions easier W ORKING C ONDITIONS - There are many government standards and regulations - Temperature, humidity, illumination, noise, safety, ergonomics, etc. ⋅ Brief History on Government Regulations of Workplace th - The mechanization and creation of factories in the 19 century was the start of increasing health and safety problems - The 1978 Labour Code was amended to give three rights to workers a) To refuse dangerous work b) To participate in improving safety and health problems c) To know how hazards in the work place ⋅ Temperature and Humidity - Work performance tends to be adversely affected if temperatures are outside a very narrow comfort band - Most activities the comfort band is 10 – 21 degrees humidity from 30 – 80 % - Productivity sharply drops below 0 degrees and close to 100% - Solutions are clothing, or heating/cooling devices ⋅ Ventilation - Problems can be dust, gases, and foul odours – unhealthy and unpleasant - Large fans and air-condition equipment are used to exchange and recondition the air ⋅ Illumination - The amount of illumination needed depends on the type of work being performed, the more detailed the work, the more light is needed - Can’t have glare or contrast - Natural day light is much better, it’s free, and it has psychologic
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