GMS 200 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Lillian Moller Gilbreth, Henri Fayol, Morale

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
School
Ryerson University
Department
Global Management Studies
Course
GMS 200
Professor
Management Learning Past to Present
Origins of management
- The activities associated with management are older than recorded history
- Historical records indicate that ppl have been getting things done through others since at lest bible
times
- Prehistoric ppl also practiced management in order to secure the basic necessities of like (food,
shelter, clothing)
- Old world Europe Middle Ages, serfs served overlord on the land. In return, they received
protection
- New world Americas African slaved, indigenous ppl, and indentured laborers from south Asia
worked plantations’
- Child labour was exploited
- In England, the factory system and manufacturing replaced agriculture
- Innovations in mining iron ore ushered in the first industrial revolution (late 18th century)
- The industrial revolution generated major economic productivity and wealth creation
- Workers were an indispensible resource to be utilized in wealth creation (foundation stone of
capitalism)
- To be profitable, workers along with capital, plant, equipment and land must be managed
- These resources create wealth when they are properly managed
- Proper management: planning, leading, controlling and organizing
- During the 1st industrial revolution (1790) Adam Smith in “wealth of nations” est. The principles of
specialization and division of labor
- Ford and others further used these principles through their emphasis on mass production (assembly
line)
- At the turn of 20th century, the most notable organizations were large and industrialized
In the Evolution of Management Thought
- Management studies began in 1900 with Classical management approaches, with:
- Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor, Frank & Lillian Gilbreth)
- Administrative Principles (Henri Fayol)
Bureaucratic Management (Max Weber)
- Basic assumption of classical management: people are rational
- People will rationally consider opportunities available to them and do what ever is necessary to
maximize their economic gain
Classical Management Approaches
Scientific Management Theory careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support
- Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) sought to improve industrial efficiency
- “The principal object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for the employer,
coupled with maximum prosperity for the employee”
- Noticed employees did their job in their own way, losing efficiency and starting to underperform
- “Time study” to analyze motions and tasks required in jobs, and to develop efficient ways to perform
them
- Theories and conclusions:
Develop for every job a “science” that includes rules of motion, standardized work
implements and proper working conditions
Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job
Carefully train workers to do the job and give them the proper incentives to cooperate with
the job “science”
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Support workers by carefully planning their work and by smoothing the way as they go about
their jobs
- Frank and Lillian pioneered motion study as an engineering and management technique, the
science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. Wasted motions are eliminated to
improve performance
- Both frank and Lillian felt that scientific management as formulated by Taylor fell short when it came
to managing the human element
- Lillian believed poorly planned jobs make work tiresome and destroyed enjoyment of tasks
- Managers and owners needed to structure authority in the workplace and that each employee
deserve basic human dignity
Administrative Principles
- Henri Fayol, French industrialist, identified 14 principles of management universal truth that cant
be taught in schools
- Five rules or duties of management
1. Foresight complete a plan of action for the future
2. Organization provide and mobilize resources to implement plan
3. Command lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward /the plan
4. Coordination fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems
are solved
5. Control ensure things happen according to plan and take necessary corrective action
- Scalar chain clear unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization
- Unity of command each person should receive orders from only one boss
- Unity of direction one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance
objectives
1. Division of Labor Specialization of work will result in continuous improvements in
skills/methods
2. Authority managers/workers need to understand that managers have the right to give order
3. Discipline behavior needs to be grounded in obedience and derived from respect. There will
be no slacking or bending of rules
4. Unity of command each person should receive orders from only one boss
5. Unity of direction one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance
objectives
6. Subordination od individual interests while at work, only work issues should be considered
7. Remuneration all should receive fair payment for their work, employees are valuable and
not simply an expense
8. Centralization while recognizing the difficulties in large organizations, decisions are
primarily made from the top
9. Scalar chain clear unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the
organization
10. Order there is a place for everything and all things should be in their place
11. Equity 0 managers should be kind and fair
12. Personnel tenure unnecessary turnover is to be avoided, and there should be lifetime
employment for good workers
13. Initiative undertake work with zeal and energy
14. Esprit de corps work to build harmony among personnel
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Document Summary

The activities associated with management are older than recorded history. Historical records indicate that ppl have been getting things done through others since at lest bible times. Prehistoric ppl also practiced management in order to secure the basic necessities of like (food, shelter, clothing) Old world europe middle ages, serfs served overlord on the land. New world americas african slaved, indigenous ppl, and indentured laborers from south asia worked plantations". In england, the factory system and manufacturing replaced agriculture. Innovations in mining iron ore ushered in the first industrial revolution (late 18th century) The industrial revolution generated major economic productivity and wealth creation. Workers were an indispensible resource to be utilized in wealth creation (foundation stone of capitalism) To be profitable, workers along with capital, plant, equipment and land must be managed. These resources create wealth when they are properly managed. Proper management: planning, leading, controlling and organizing.

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