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Human Resources
MHR 405
Neil Rothenberg

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURWHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUROrganizational Behavior a field of study that seeks to understand explain predict and change human behavior both individual and collective in the organizational contextOrganizational behaviour is studied at three different levels the individual level the group level and the organization wide level Today interorganizational levels are also being exploredRoots of Organizational Behaviour The roots of organizational behaviour emerged as a distinct field in the mid1940s and is a discipline that has grown out of contributions from numerous earlier fields of studyThe fields include1Psychology influences work teams work motivation training and development power and leadership human resource planning and workshop wellness 2Sociology influences group and intergroup dynamics roles norms and standards of behaviour ethics etc3Engineering influences design of work efficiency performance standards productivity goal setting and scientific management 4Anthropology influences organizational culture patterns of behaviour5Administrative Science influences design implementation and management of various administrative and organizational systems Organizational Behavior and Management Organization groups of people who work independently toward some common purposeManagers people in the organizations who perform jobs that involve the direct supervision of other peopleoPlanning involves defining goals that flow from the business strategy setting performance objectives and creating action plansoOrganizing includes dividing up the tasks and establishing work roles or departments in order to carry out the plansoLeading involves communicating motivating and managing conflict oControlling monitoring financial and human performance Mintzberg discovered that managers are required to perform interpersonal informational and decisional functions that encompassed tasks related to the management of people as well as those related to the management of information material and financial resourcesTHE BENEFITS OF STUDYING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organizational behaviour is an applied behaviour science which means it is based on research that improves ones ability to understand predict and influence others 1Improved Managerial Effectiveness and Bottom LineEffective management of OB connects to various aspects of a companys bottom line such as sustaining high performance over changing market conditions improving individual and group productivity and increasing organizational adaptability Management of OB has become increasingly important partly because traditional sources of competitive advantage such as market share proprietary technology access to capital have become less powerful 2More Efficient InfluenceMastering the field of OB is essential for managers in order to influence others It is important for nonmanagers as well to influence their bosses3A Career in Human Resources The first step towards learning about the field of OBAN OPEN SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK FOR EXPLAINING HOW ORGANIZATIONS FUNCTION External Task EnvironmentThe companys external environment includes those sectors with which the organization interacts directly and that have a direct impact on the organizations ability to achieve goals Boundaryspanning role jobs that link and coordinate an organization with key elements in the task environment Organizational InputsAll the human informational material and financial resources taken from the external task environment and used by the organization The GHOST Model for the Internal Organization G goals the action strategies that leaders create and follow to accomplish the organizations purpose and vision H human resources employees and managers in the organization including the nature of their relationships their values and the impact of the reward system on their behavior OS organizational structure is defined as the manner in which an organizations work is designed as well as how departments divisions and the overall organization are designed A key aspect of effective OB is ensuring that these complement each other rather than conflict T technology is the wide range of tolls knowledge IT work processes and techniques used to transform the inputs into outputs Organizational OutputsThe products and services as well as the more intangible outputs such as reputation image and ideasFeedback ProcessesAny information that people or organizations receive about their behaviour or performance its effect on others or comparison to a standard or expectationTHE FORMALINFORMAL FRAMEWORK AND NEW PARADIGMS FORUNDERSTANDING HOW ORGANIZATIONS WORKFormal organization the official legitimate and most visible part of the system Informal organization the unofficial and less visible part of the system This includes the unofficial and less visible elements such as beliefs assumptions values and unspoken norms that emerge in the organizational culture Organizational culture a pattern of basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught to new members as the way to perceive think and feel in the organization New Organizational Paradigms These paradigms tend to stress and elaborate on the internal organizations dynamic capacity for selforganization learning and complex adaptation These are important for managers as they draw attention to the softer aspects of organizational life such as relationships trust and interconnections that while less visible and easy to control directly can be highly influential Chaos Theory and OBSay that organizations are not made up of different parts that can be controlled but rather they are made up of fields that influence our interactions directions and decisions These fields are both visible and invisible Imposed organizational structures should not be permanent Rather they need to come and go so that a structure emerges that actually supports the relationships that are most necessary Organizations as Complex Adaptive Systems It is the informal organization that emerges and guides peoples actions as they self organize and form patterns of behavior A complex adaptive system can be defined as complex means that organizations are composed of multiple and diverse pieces in differing relationships Adaptive means that the organization is constantly learning new and effective means to fit with its environment in ways that enable a healthy harmonious existence
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