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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 523
Margaret Yap

MHR523 – Chapter 4 Organizing Work: Organizational Structure – The formal relationships among jobs in an organization Organization Chart – A “snapshot” of the firm, depicting the organization's structure in chart form at a particular point in time. Three basic types: Bureaucratic – Top-down management approach, many levels, highly specialized jobs, focus on independent performance Flat – Decentralized management approach, few levels, broadly defined job descriptions, emphasis on teams and on customer service Boundaryless – Joint ventures with customers, suppliers, and/or competitors, emphasis on teams whose members may cross organizational boundaries Job Design: Job Design – The process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job Job – A group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of incumbents Position – The collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person Specialization and Industrial Engineering Considerations Work Simplification – An approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management. Not effective in a changing environment, or one where employees want challenges Industrial Engineering – A field of study concerned with analyzing work methods; making work cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and establishing time standards. Focus on industrial engineering can lead to human considerations being neglected. Behavioural Considerations Job Enlargement (Horizontal Loading) – A technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform Job Rotation – Another technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom that involves systematically moving employees from one job to another Job Enrichment (Vertical Loading) – Any effor that makes an employee's job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties Job Characteristics Model – Proposes that employee motivation and satisfaction are directly linked to five core characteristics: 1. Skill Variety – Degree to which the job requires a person to do different tasks 2. Task Identity – Degree to which the job requires completion of an identifiable piece of work 3. Task Significance – Degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives and www.notesolution.com work of others – both inside and outside of the organization 4. Autonomy – Amount of freedom, independence, and discretion the employee has in terms of scheduling work and determining procedures 5. Feedback – Degree to which the job provides the employee with clear and direct information about job outcomes and the effectiveness of his or her performance Three critical psychological states that are related to a number of beneficial work outcomes: Experienced meaningfulness – Extent to which the employee experiences the work as important, valuable, and worthwhile Experienced responsibility – Degree to which the employee feels personally responsible or accountable for the outcome of the work Knowledge of results – Degree to which the employee understands, on a regular basis, how effectively he or she is performing A job with characteristics that allow an employee to experience all three critical states provides internal rewards that sustain motivation. Team-Based Job Designs Team-based Job Designs – Job designs that focus on giving a team, rather than an individual, a whole and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work Team – A small group of people, with complimentary skills, who work toward common goals for which they hold joint responsibility and accountability Human Engineering Considerations Human Engineering (Ergonomics) – An interdisciplinary approach that seeks to integrate and accomodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs. It aims to adapt the entire job system – the work, environment, machines, equipment, and processes – to match human characteristics Human engineering can also aid in meeting the unique requirements of those with special needs. The Nature of Job Analysis Job Analysis – The procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform it. Job Description – A list of the duties, responsibilites, reporting relationships, and working conditions of a job – one product of a job analysis Job Specification – A list of the “human requirements” that is, the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities, needed to perform the job – another product of a job analysis Uses of Job Analysis Information: Human Resources Planning – Using knowledge about the skills and qualifications of current employees to determine which jobs can be filled i
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