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Chapter 3

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Human Resources
MHR 523
Elizabeth Carlson

Chapter 3  There is a direct relationship between the personality traits we posses, our perception, and our emotional response.  Social perception: the process of interpreting information about another person.  Social perception model: characteristics of the perceiver: familiarity with target, attitudes, mood, self concept, cognitive structure. Characteristics of the target: physical appearance, verbal communication, nonverbal cues, intentions. Characteristics of the situation: context of the interaction, strength of situational cues.  Barriers: selective perception, stereotyping, first impression error, projection, self fulfilling prophecies.  Three major categories of factors influence our perception of another person: characteristics of ourselves as perceivers, characteristics of the target person we perceive, and characteristics of the situation in which the interaction takes place.  Mood can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone.  Cognitive structure: an individual’s pattern of thinking  Self concept: how we feel about ourselves.  Nonverbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target  Discounting principle: the assumption that an individual’s behaviour is accounted for by the situation  Impression management: the process by which individuals try to control the impressions others have of them.  Several techniques to control others’ impressions: self enhancing, namedropping, managing one’s appearance, self descriptions/statements, other enhancing (commonly used by disabled people to make others feel comfortable around them), grating favours, flattery.  Selective perception: the process of selecting information that supports our individual viewpoints while discounting information that threatens our viewpoints.  Stereotype: a generalization about a group of people.  First impression error: the tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions  Halo effect: a perceptual barrier that can result from basing one impression of a person on one prominent characteristic.  Projection: overestimating the number of people who share our own beliefs, values and behaviour.  Self fulfilling prophecy: the situation in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled.  Attribution theory: a theory that explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behaviour and that of others.  Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behaviour.  Self serving bias: the tendency to attribute one’s own success to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes.  Power freak: the need to dominate situations; strive to enhance their status, showing little or no regard for others. Do not take responsibility for their actions, manipulative.  Personality: a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behaviour.  Psychodynamic theory: the personality theory that emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behaviour.  Trait theory: the personality theory that states that in order to understand indivi
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