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Human Resources
MHR 523

Management Human Resources Chapter 1 Notes  Human Resource Management: aims to improve the productive contribution of individuals while simultaneously attempting to attain other societal and individual employee objectives. Major Challenges Facing Canadian Businesses:-  Economic Challenges : surviving a recessionary cycle Facing the global trade Meeting the challenges of productivity improvement  Productivity: the ratio of a firm’s outputs(goods and serv/ces) Inputs (e.g., people, capital, materials, energy)  Outsourcing: contracting tasks to outside agencies or persons.  Outplacement: assisting employees to find jobs with other employees.  Technological challenges:-  Computerization: a major technological change allowing the processing of vast amounts of data at great speeds, enabling organizations to improve efficiency, responsiveness, and flexibility in operations.  Technological contributions: processing large volumes of information on a timely basis, flexible work design and telecommuting, information sharing and knowledge management.  Telecommuting: paid labour performed at the employee’s home, full-time or part-time, with assistance of PCs, modems, fax machines, etc.  Knowledge management: the process of capturing organizational knowledge and making it available for sharing and building new knowledge.  Automation: the automatically controlled operation of a process, system, or equipment by mechanical or electronic devices. o Advantages: speed Increase predictability Achieve higher standards of quality in production. Machines don’t go on strikes, neither ask for raises. Flexibility in operations o Disadvantages: expensive machines cannot be purchased by all businesses. Smaller workforces will increase unemployment. Fewer opportunities for humans. More factories will work 2 to 3 shifts a day due to automation. 1 Management Human Resources Chapter 1 Notes  Demographic Challenges: challenges in the demographics of the labour force (e.g., education levels, participation rates) that occur slowly and are usually known in advance. o Increase of women in the workforce. o Shift toward knowledge workers. o Educational attainment of workers. o Employment of older workers. o More-Part-time, Contract and Contingent workers.  Data workers: members of occupations (e.g., most clerical occupations) that use, transmit, or manipulate symbolic information created by knowledge workers.  Knowledge workers: members of occupations generating, processing, analyzing, or synthesizing ideas and information (like scientists and management consultants). *Also, the fastest-growing type of workers in the Canadian labour force.  Educational Attainment: the highest educational level attained by an individual worker, employee group, or population.  Old age crisis: refers to the social (health care) and organizational (new workplace ergonomics) challenges caused by aging of population.  Part-time workers: persons working fewer than required hours for categorization as full-time workers and who are ineligible for many supplementary benefits offered by employers.  Contract (contingent) workers: freelancers (self-employed, temporary, or leased employees) who are not part of regular workforce and are paid on a project completion basis. o Freelancers: - employees who work for the employer through independent contract arrangements. o Leased employers: former company employees who are members of a leasing firm and work for the previous employer on an as-needed basis. *Loyalty is limited, especially if working with other companies at the same time.  Cultural Challenges: challenges facing a firm’s decision makers because of cultural differences among employees or changes in core cultural or social values occurring at the larger societal level. o Work-Related Attitudes o Ethnic diversity o Attitudes toward governments Attitudes toward work: variety of work-related assumptions and values including the role of work in a person’s life and the role of women and diverse groups in organizations. 2 Management Human Resources Chapter 1 Notes  Cultural Mosaic: Canadian ideal of encouraging each ethnic, racial, and social group to maintain its own cultural heritage, forming a national mosaic of different cultures.  Attitudes toward government: basic assumptions about the role of government in business and society, including the desirability of a welfare state with a key interventionist role for the government. --------------------------------
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