Management Human Resources
Chapter 1 Notes
Human Resource Management: aims to improve the productive contribution of individuals
while simultaneously attempting to attain other societal and individual employee objectives.
Major Challenges Facing Canadian Businesses:-
Economic Challenges : surviving a recessionary cycle
Facing the global trade
Meeting the challenges of productivity improvement
Productivity: the ratio of a firm’s outputs(goods and serv/ces)
Inputs (e.g., people, capital, materials, energy)
Outsourcing: contracting tasks to outside agencies or persons.
Outplacement: assisting employees to find jobs with other employees.
Computerization: a major technological change allowing the processing of vast amounts of data
at great speeds, enabling organizations to improve efficiency, responsiveness, and flexibility in
Technological contributions: processing large volumes of information on a timely basis, flexible
work design and telecommuting, information sharing and knowledge management.
Telecommuting: paid labour performed at the employee’s home, full-time or part-time, with
assistance of PCs, modems, fax machines, etc.
Knowledge management: the process of capturing organizational knowledge and making it
available for sharing and building new knowledge.
Automation: the automatically controlled operation of a process, system, or equipment by
mechanical or electronic devices.
o Advantages: speed
Achieve higher standards of quality in production.
Machines don’t go on strikes, neither ask for raises.
Flexibility in operations
o Disadvantages: expensive machines cannot be purchased by all businesses.
Smaller workforces will increase unemployment.
Fewer opportunities for humans.
More factories will work 2 to 3 shifts a day due to automation.
1 Management Human Resources
Chapter 1 Notes
Demographic Challenges: challenges in the demographics of the labour force (e.g., education
levels, participation rates) that occur slowly and are usually known in advance.
o Increase of women in the workforce.
o Shift toward knowledge workers.
o Educational attainment of workers.
o Employment of older workers.
o More-Part-time, Contract and Contingent workers.
Data workers: members of occupations (e.g., most clerical occupations) that use, transmit, or
manipulate symbolic information created by knowledge workers.
Knowledge workers: members of occupations generating, processing, analyzing, or synthesizing
ideas and information (like scientists and management consultants). *Also, the fastest-growing
type of workers in the Canadian labour force.
Educational Attainment: the highest educational level attained by an individual worker,
employee group, or population.
Old age crisis: refers to the social (health care) and organizational (new workplace ergonomics)
challenges caused by aging of population.
Part-time workers: persons working fewer than required hours for categorization as full-time
workers and who are ineligible for many supplementary benefits offered by employers.
Contract (contingent) workers: freelancers (self-employed, temporary, or leased employees)
who are not part of regular workforce and are paid on a project completion basis.
o Freelancers: - employees who work for the employer through independent
o Leased employers: former company employees who are members of a leasing
firm and work for the previous employer on an as-needed basis.
*Loyalty is limited, especially if working with other companies at the same time.
Cultural Challenges: challenges facing a firm’s decision makers because of cultural differences
among employees or changes in core cultural or social values occurring at the larger societal
o Work-Related Attitudes
o Ethnic diversity
o Attitudes toward governments
Attitudes toward work: variety of work-related assumptions and values including the role of work in a
person’s life and the role of women and diverse groups in organizations.
2 Management Human Resources
Chapter 1 Notes
Cultural Mosaic: Canadian ideal of encouraging each ethnic, racial, and social group to maintain
its own cultural heritage, forming a national mosaic of different cultures.
Attitudes toward government: basic assumptions about the role of government in business and
society, including the desirability of a welfare state with a key interventionist role for the