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IND 712 (4)
Chapter 2

Chap 2 study notes

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Ryerson University
Industrial Engineering
IND 712
Patrick Neumann

Anatomy is given 3 body subassemblies The spineUpper extremitylower extremityAnatomy in greek anatomia means to cut up It describes the build of the human bodyThe SpineThe spine is divided into 4 parts 1Cervical concave forward2Thoracicconcave backwards3Lumbar L concave forward4Sacrum Sacrum is linked to the top part of the pelvis ilium with a joint on either side llower back lumbar L4L5 are the problematic areas Note discs are angled downwards instead of horizontal due to weight of torsoDisc pressure is 50100 higher when sitting then standing especially when sitting in a slumped back position reduce by using armrests LordosisthinkL for lumbar partThis is an increase in the lumbar curvature a swayback postureprotruding belly Kyphosis think siscic in ThoracicThis is an increase in the thoracic curvature a hunchback and slouching shoulders ScoliosisThis is the bending of the spine to the side from the front view Facts Body shrink about 11 a day due to compressive loading Regained by sleeping Vertebrae and discs are held together by ligaments There are many back problems due to the narrow width of the rear ligament in the low backring like structure of disc surround a sac of fluidalso gives great strength Discs fail bec they wear out from normal daily activities it takes toll in microscopic stretchingtearing and raveling of the casing fibers Microdamage becomes cumulative until the casing is no longer capable of containing the packing material Slow leaks of the gel occur from time to time until disc begins to go narrow and gradually go flat There are no nociceptors pain nerves thus one can injure them wo experiencing pain lower back pain1
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