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ITM 100 (123)
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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Ryerson University
Information Technology Management
ITM 100
Ron Babin

Chapter 2 Technology Essentials We make contact with IT all day long For example, bank relies on IT to provide ATM, grocery store uses IT to make transaction much faster, we use cell phones, mp3 IT allows us to do communication with others, such as through cell phones and instant messaging IT allows transactions between you and the organization with which you deal It could be online purchases from website The components of IT All IT are limited to the following capabilities o Accepting and storing information o Performing mathematical calculations o Applying logic to make decisions o Retrieving, displaying and sending information o Consistently repeating the above actions many times IT does this thing very well, IT devices combines all these capabilities in different ways to help us more efficient and effective IT consists of 3 basic categories Hardware- it is the electronic and mechanical part that you can see and touch, such as your computer monitor Software- it is the set of instructions that direct the hardware such as Adobe Photoshop Network- it is the technology that increases their power by allowing users to share resources, including hardware, software and information These 3 create a platform Hardware www.notesolution.com IT devices share a common set of system components, we can categorize these general components into 6 basic IT hardware o Processing- direct implementation of instructions and the transformation of data o Memory- temporarily locates data and instructions before processing o Input- provides the boundary used for data entry into a device o Output- provides the boundary use to retrieve information from a device o Storage- stores data, information and instructions for the long term o Communications- connects one IT device to another The hardware parts represent physical (hard) parts of a system, different from the more adjustable (soft) parts These six hardware categories are almost same to most modern IT devices including PC Processing hardware Transistor is an electronic switch that can be either on or off On is represented by 1 and off is represented by 0 By combining several transistors, we can represent data as a combination of 1s and 0s, which is in a binary format There is a tiny chip made up of transistors at the centre of all computing operations is the microprocessor Microprocessor contains most of the parts that make up the CPU (Central Processing Unit) CPU is the computers brain, it works together with memory to control the execution of all instructions and processing of all data Memory Computers have long-term memory (ROM) and short-term memory (RAM) o Read only memory (ROM) www.notesolution.com Read only memory (ROM) contains instructions and data that only special devices can change In computers, ROM has the instructions used to control the start-up processes (booting up) After booting, computer no longer needs ROM, now it needs RAM o Random access memory (RAM) Random access memory (RAM) stores data only until they are no longer needed, or until you shut down the computer It is called random access because CPU can access any item stored in RAM randomly Capacities of the memory range from kilobytes to megabytes to gigabytes Input hardware For an IT device to process information, you need to provide it with the required data After data is in, it needs a way to present the information back to you Input devices such as keyboard allow us to enter data and commands Pointing devices such as mouse allow users to provide instructions to the computer using hands to point and click Scanning devices scans bar codes in most retails For example in Loblaws, the scanning devices technology allowed the company to create self-service checkout lanes Output hardware Output devices convert IT processed information into a useable form When choosing output devices, knowledge-enabled professionals first is concerned about the quality and speed of the output Secondly they are concerned about the ergonomics, portability, compatibility, and environmental considerations Output devices are such as monitors, mp3 players, speakers www.notesolution.com
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