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ITM 100 (123)
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Chapter 5

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Information Technology Management
ITM 100
Deb Fels

Chapter 5 - IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies 5.1 - IT Infrastructure Defining IT Infrastructure  The shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firm's specific information systems applications  Includes technology components such as hardware and software, as well as services such as consulting, oversight, and training Evolution of IT Infrastructure  General-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era  Personal computer era  Client/Server era  Enterprise computing era  Cloud Computing and Mobile Computing era Technology Drivers of Infrastructure Evolution  Moore's Law and micro-processing power  The Law of Mass Digital Storage  Metcalfe's Law  Declining communications costs and the Internet  Standards and network effects Moore's Law The observation that:  Computing power doubles every 18 months  The price of computing falls by half every 18 months The Law of Mass Digital Storage  The amount of digital information is roughly doubling every year  The cost of storage is falling at an exponential rate of 100% per year Metcalfe's Law and Network Economics  The value of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network members 5.2 - Infrastructure Components Computer Hardware  Client machines (desktops, laptops, and PDAs)  Server machines (provides access to network-based applications and data)  Mainframe systems (used as giant servers for enterprise and networks and corporate Web sites Operating System Platforms  Operating systems refer to software that manages the resources and activities of a computer  Microsoft Windows dominates the market of client machine software  Unix and Linux are widely used a server operating system software Enterprise Software Applications  The largest suppliers of enterprise software are: - SAP - Oracle - PeopleSoft (acquired by Oracle) Data Management & Storage  Database software: IBM (DB2), Oracle, Microsoft (SQL Server), Sybase (Adaptive Server Enterprise), MySQL  Physical data storage: EMC Corp (large-scale systems), Seagate, Maxtor, Western Digital  Storage area networks (SANs): connect multiple storage devices on dedicated network Networking & Telecommunications Platforms  Leading network hardware providers are Cisco, Lucent, and Juniper  Software leaders are Microsoft, Novell, Linux, and Unix  Service vendors include Bell Canada, Primus, and regional carriers  Growth of wireless and Voice over IP (VoIP) Internet Platforms  Hardware, software, management services to support company Web sites, (including Web hosting services) , intranets, extranets  Internet hardware server market: Dell, HP/Compaq, IBM  Web development tools/suites: Microsoft (FrontPage, .NET), IBM (WebSphere), Sun (Java), Independent software developers: Macromedia/Adobe, RealMedia Consulting & System Integration Services  Even large firms do not always have resources for a full range of support for new, complex infrastructure  Software integration: ensuring new infrastructure works with legacy systems  Legacy systems: older transaction processing systems created for mainframes that would be too costly to replace or redesign  Examples: Accenture, IBM Global Services, EDS, Infosys, Wipro 5.3 - Hardware Trends  The emerging mobile digital platform  Grid computing  Cloud computing  Green computing Mobile Platforms  Cell phones, smart phones (BlackBerry, iPhone) have assumed data transmission, Web surfing, e-mail and IM duties  Netbooks: small, low-cost lightweight notebooks optimized for wireless communication and core computing tasks Grid Computing  Involves connecting geographically remote computers into a single network capable of working in parallel on business problems that require short-term access to large computational capacity  Rather than purchase huge mainframes or super computers, firms can chain togeth
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