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Chapter 1

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Ryerson University
Information Technology Management
ITM 305
Jim Tam

ITM305 – Chapter 1 Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design Introduction  System development life cycle (SDLC): the process of understanding how an information system (IS) can support business needs by designing a system, building it, and delivering it to users  Key person in SDLC is the systems analyst o Analyzes business situation, identifies opportunities for improvements, and design an IS to implement them o Primary objective is to create value for the organization (increasing profits) The Systems Development Life Cycle  Building an IS is similar to building a house o Basic idea o Idea is transformed into simple drawing and refined o A set of blueprints is designed that has more detail info o Finally, it is built following the blueprints (some things are also subject to change)  SDLC has four fundamental phases (each has steps, techniques, and deliverables): o Planning o Analysis o Design o Implementation Planning  Planning phase is the fundamental process of understanding why an IS should be built and determining how the project team will build it 1. Project initiation – the system’s business value is identified:  System request – how will it lower costs or increase revenues (from marketing department, accounting department)?  The IS dept. works together with project sponsor (who made the request) to conduct a feasibility analysis  Feasibility analysis examines:  Idea’s technical feasibility (can we build it?)  Economic feasibility (will it provide business value?)  Organizational feasibility (if we build it, will it be used?)  The system request and feasibility are presented to IS approval committee 2. Once approved, it enters project management  The project manager creates a workplan, staffs the project, and puts techniques in place Analysis  Analysis phase answers the questions of who will use the system, what the system will do and where and when it will be used o Investigates any current system(s), identifies opportunities for improvement, and develops a concept for the new system 1. Analysis strategy is developed to guide the project team’s effort  As-is system – an analysis of the current system  To-be system – problems and ways to design a new system 2. Requirements gathering (ex. interviews or questionnaires)  The system concept is then used as basis to develop a set of business analysis models (how the business will operate if the new system is developed)  The analyses, system concept, and models are combined into a document called system proposal (present to project sponsor and other key decision makers) Design  Design place decides how the system will operate (hardware, software, network infrastructure, user interface, forms and reports, program, databases, etc) 1. Design strategy first developed (whether the system will be developed by company’s own programmers, outsourced to another firm, or buy an existing software package) 2. Architecture design – describes the hardware, software, and network infrastructure to be used Interface design – how users will move through the system (menus, on-screen buttons, etc) and the forms and reports that the system will use 3. Database and file specifications are developed – define exactly what data will be stored and where 4. The analyst team develops the program design – defines programs that need to be written and exactly what each program will do  This collection of deliverables is the system specification handed to the programming team Implementation  Implementation phase, the system is actually built (or purchased) – most longest and expensive part of development process 1. System construction is the first step – system is built and tested (more attention to testing than writing the program) 2. Installation – process in which old system is turned off and new one turned on  One of most important part of conversion is development of training plan (to teach others the new system and help manage the changes) 3. Analyst team establishes a support plan – includes formal/informal post- implementation review as well as systematic way for identify changes Systems Development Methodologies  A methodology is a formalized approach to implementing SDLC (i.e. list of steps and deliverables)  A process-centered methodology emphasizes process models as the core of the system concept (ex. assemble sandwich ingredients)  A data-centered methodologies emphasize data models as the core of the system concept (ex. defining contents of storage areas; refrigerator)  Object-oriented methodologies attempt to balance the focus b/w process and data by incorporating both in 1 model Structured Design  The first category of systems development methodologies is called structured design  Waterfall o The original structu
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