ITM 301 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Sneakernet

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An introduction to networking
Why use networks?
More productive and efficient than stand-alone computer (A computer that is
not connected to other computers)
Sneakernet: people where sneakers hwile walking computer to computer to
transport information
Types of networks
Peer-to-peer networks
Every computer can communicate directly with every other computer. No
computer has more authority than the other.
Simple to configure
Less expensive to set up
Not very flexible, as a p2p network grows larger adding or changing
elements may be difficult
Not secure data can be easily discovered by unauthorized people
Not practical for connecting more than a handful of computers
Client/Server Networks
Uses a central computer to facilitate communication and resource sharing between
other computers knows as clients
Clients: take the form of personal computers aka as workstations
Client/server network: a network that uses a server to allow clients to share data,
data storage space and devices.
NOS (network operating system)
Access to multiple shared resources can be centrally granted to s single
user or group of users
Problems on the network can be monitored and fixed from one location
Can handle heavy processing loads, fast response
Servers can connect more than a handful of computers on a network
Lan (local area connection
A network of devices confined to a small space such as a building or office
Wan (wide area network)
A network that connects 2 or more geographically distinct LANs
Connects computers in different countries
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Man (metropolitan area network)
Connects computers in different buildings
Elements common to a Client/server network
Client: a computer on the network that requests resources or services from
another computer on a network (a client can sometimes also act as a server)
Server: a computer on the network that manages shared resources; servers
usually have more processing power, memory and hard disc space than clients.
They run network operating systems (NOS) that can mange data, users, groups,
security and applications
Workstation: a personal computer (desktop or laptop) which may or may not be
connected to a network most clients are work station computers
NIC (network interface card): the device inside a computer that connects a
computer to the network media, thus allowing it to communicate with other
NOS (network operating system): a software that runs on a server and enables it
to manage data, users, groups, security and applications and other networking
functions (Microsoft windows, LINUX and MAC)
Host: A computer that enables resource sharing by other computers on the same
Node: a client, server or other device that can communicate over a network and is
identified by a unique number, known as its network address
Connectivity device: a specialized device that allows multiple networks or
multiple parts of one network to connect and exchange data.
Segment: A part of a network composed of a group of nodes that use the same
communications channel for all their traffic.
Backbone: The part of the network to which segments and significant shared
devices (such as routers switches and servers) connect.
Topology: The physical layout of a computer network, networks can be arranged
in a ring, bus, or start formation
Protocol: A standard method or format for communication between networked
Packet: A distinct unit of data exchanged between nodes on a network. Breaking
a large stream of data into many packets allows a network to deliver that data
more efficiently.
Addressing: The scheme for assigning a unique identifying number to every node
on the network. The type of addressing used depends on the networks protocols
and network operating system. Each network device must have a unique address
so that data can be transmitted reliably to and from that device.
Transmission media: The means through which data are transmitted and
received. Transition media may be physical such as a wire or cable, or
atmospheric (wireless) such as radio waves.
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How networks are used
File and Print services
Network services: functions provided by a network
File services: refers to a server’s ability to share data files, applications (word
processing or spreadsheet), and disc storage space.
File server: A server that provides file services
Print Services: to share printers across a network also saves time and money.
A central printer, instead of each computer getting its own, a central printer
saves money on maintenance and can handle the printing needs of everyone.
Access Services
Allow remote users to connect to the network.
Remote users: Refers to a person working on a computer on a different
network or in a different geographical location from the Lan’s server.
Remote access server (access server): allows remote users to log on to the
network, and take advantage of the network just as if they wee logged on to a
work station on the office LAN.
Communication Services
Convergence: Using the same network to deliver multiple types of
communications services.
Unified communications: refers to the centralized management of multiple
network-based communications. Using 1 software program to manage in-
office phone calls, long distance phone calls, cell phones, voice mails, faxes
and text messages.
Mail services: The oldest network communications services, which
coordinates the storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network. The
computer responsible for mail services is called a mail server.
Internet Services
Web server: A computer installed with the appropriate software to supply
web pages to many different clients upon demand.
Internet Services: include file transfer capabilities, internet addressing
schemes, security filters, and a means for directly logging on to other
computers on the internet.
Management Services
Network management services: centrally administer management tasks on the
network, such as ensuring that no more than 20 work stations are using adobe
Photoshop at one time in an organization that purchased a 20-user license for
the software.
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