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Chapter 1-3

LAW 602 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-3: Transmission Control Protocol, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, Internet Service Provider

Law and Business
Course Code
LAW 602
Eric Libman

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LAW602 Smyth
CHAPTER 01: Introduction to Cyberspace & Cybercrime
Cybercrime & The Internet
Internet: Computer networks that link users around the globe.
Packet Switching: occurs when the communication is broken up into smaller fixed-length
packets, which are sent independently across the network to their destination. Packets can
arrive out of sequence and be reassembled by the recipient computer into a complete
Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA): A networking project initiated by the United States
Advanced Research Project agency in the 1960s, which evolved into the modern-day Internet.
Interface Message Processors (IMPs):
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): The protocol that facilitates computers to “speak” to each
The Net Expands
Internet Protocol (IP): The protocol used to send data from one computer to another over the
TCP/IP: A suite of protocols, or a collection of standards, that provides a common language for
data transmission over the Internet.
World Wide Web (www): The multimedia branch of the Internet. Also the collective term for a
global network of information, which is accessible through the Internet.
End-to-End Principle: One of the central design principles of the Internet. Intelligence in the
networks is located at the ends, not in the network itself.
Client-Server Model: Involves one or more shared computers, called servers, which are
connected by a network to the individual users’ workstations, called clients.
Internet Service Provider (ISP): An organization that customers can connect to in order to
obtain Internet access.
IP Address: A unique numeric address that is used to identify a specific machine on the Internet
(ex: 193.342.16.92).
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names & Numbers (ICANN): A non-profit corporation in
California that manages IP addresses and domain names.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): The protocol or rules used for transferring data on the
Peer-to-Peer (P2P): A unique way for user machines across the Internet to connect to each
other and form networks. The most popular use of P2P networks is for the sharing and
distribution of files.
The Internet’s Unique Layered Architecture
Physical Layer: The computer equipment and telecommunications networks that the Internet
Operational Layer: Consists of standards and protocols, as well as ISP functions essential to the
operation of the Internet. These layers are controlled by private entities, including
telecommunications carriers, who carefully manage and oversee the delivery of Internet data.
Application Layer: Consists of all the high-level protocols that support the applications and
utilities that make the Internet useful to end-users.
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