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Chapter All readings for up until the midterm

POG 411 Chapter Notes - Chapter All readings for up until the midterm: Hans Morgenthau, Royal Assent, Composite Index Of National Capability


Department
Politics and Public Administration
Course Code
POG 411
Professor
Dutil
Chapter
All readings for up until the midterm

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Week One Readings
“Three Theoretical Perspectives” Dewitt and Kirton
Central questions of foreign policy analysis
o International presence
Rank
Focus on states rank has been sustained by mounting evidence of
the salience of national capabilities in determining foreign policy
behavior
Includes states relative capability measured by objective attributes
(i.e. population and distribution, etc.)
o International behavior
Activity
Directs towards other actors in international realm
Variety of activity similarity across time, issues and targets
Diffusion of activity among targets abroad
Association
Intersection of states external activities
o The question of initiative
Commitment and focus
o Approach to world order
Degree to which the state considers order
Scope state extent to maintain international order
Transformation state supports moderate specific alternatives/permanent
alterations to exist in structure
Determinants of international behavior
o External determinants
o Societal determinants
o Government determinants
Complex neo-realist perspective (Hans Morgenthau)
o Classic realism
Highlights the ceaseless interplay among great powers preoccupied with
maximizing their military security by manipulating the balance of power
to secure fragile stability within international system characterized by
anarchy
o Complex neo-realist perspective
Accepting fundamental premise of realism primary of politics
Sees separate states pursuing distinctive interests in an international milieu
in which no natural harmony of interests exists
Focuses on the role of hegemonic powers in ensuring, defining and
extending international order
o Principal powers (three characteristics)
Stand at the top of international status ranking
Act as principles in their international activities in associations rather than
agents for other states
They have principles role in establishing, specifying and enforcing
international order
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“Canadian in International Affairs” – Tomlin, Hillmer and Hampson
Approaches to the study of Canadian foreign policy
o Level analysis approach
Individual level
Most important factors that influence policy decisions and choices
are psychological dispositions of leaders, including leaders belief
system, personality, and emotive/cognitive biases (this level
stresses the role of human agency)
National level
Nature/structure of the political system (institutional relationships
among different branches of government), public opinion, media,
interest groups, ideology, structure of economy and ethnic group
relations
Systemic-level explanations
Focus on international or regional systems and how distribution of
power (military and economic powers) effects policy choices and
behavior of individual state systems
States calibrate national interests in terms of
o Own capabilities
o Threats and opportunities
Realists
Favor alliances and military solutions to achieve international
order and promote the security interests of states
Liberal
International institutions are preferred, instruments of international
peace and security to counter anarchy tendencies
Canadian Foreign Policy, 1945-1968” – Chapnick
Golden age
o The period understood to have begun shortly after the end of WWII during which
international circumstances were all compatible with the pursuit of a Canadian
foreign policy that served a widely accepted definition of national interests
Functional principle
o Post-WWII doctrine enunciated by King government stating that non-great
powers (like Canada) could make their most significant difference in world affairs
when engaged in issues in which they had pre-existing expertise and active
participation
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Week Two Readings
“Of Legacies and Lightning Bolts: An Updated Look at the Prime Minister and Canadian
Foreign Policy” – Gecelovsky
Idiosyncratic variable
o Extent or degree to which a PM seeks to distinguish the international behavior of
their government from other administrations, the way the PM uses the power of
the office to achieve goals
Plenipotentiary powers
o The authority possessed by the office of the PM to negotiate, sign and withdraw
from international agreements on behalf of Canada
o Basically, anything under international relations falls under this
“Parliament and Canadian Foreign Policy: Between Paradox and Potential” Schmitz
Paradoxical actor
o Operates in a way that is logically inconsistent or self-contradictory (i.e.
government actor that is constitutionally powerful but has little actual power
Parliamentary consent
o Approval by majority vote of the members of the House of Commons and the
Senate
Statutory enactment
o Approving legislation and giving it the force of the law
o Legislation must be passed by the House of Commons and the Senate, received
Royal assent and proclaimed as having entered into force
White paper
o Formal statement of federal government policy used to set out government
approach, decisions, commitments and objectives
o In particular, in areas of public policy
Green papers
o Used to invite parliamentary and public comment prior to the government making
foreign policy decision
SCFAIT (Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade)
o Principle commons of foreign policy
SCFAID (Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development)
o Most important of foreign policy committees
o Produce major reports (most notably in 2008 Afghanistan)
o Canada’s role in military alliances (i.e. NATO and NORAD) and collective
security
o Role of Canadian Forces in UN Peace Operations
“The Dynamic Relations Between Canada and China” – Burton
Struggle with economic concerns and human rights in formulation of statements with
Canada’s China policy
Canada’s national interests in relations with the PRC
o Canada adopted highly consistent approach to relations with China
China was highly resonant with Canadian foreign policy doctrine
articulated in the Department of Foreign Affairs foreign policy statement
Canada in the world
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