PSY 105 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Reciprocal Altruism, Ammassalik Island, Prefrontal Cortex

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Published on 30 Mar 2011
School
Ryerson University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 105
Chapter 15
THE CULTURAL CONTEXT
-Culture:
1) a program of shared rules that govern the behaviour of members of a community
2)a set of beliefs, values, and attitudes shared by most members of that community
3) a way a person identifies themselves
THE STUDY OF CULTURE
-cultural psychologists
-cross-cultural psychologists
-Challenges:
-methodological
-interpreting results
-the problem of stereotypes
INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM
-Individualist Cultures: those in which individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others
-}oo]À]µoµWZ}]vÁZ]ZZu}vÇÁ]Z}v[P}µ]]Ì}À]v]À]µoP}ovÁ]Z
THE RULES OF CULTURE
-non verbal communication
-the organization of time
-the self and self-identity
CULTURE AND INTELLIGENCE
-to answer the question of whether someone is smart, you HAVE to understand the cultural environment in which that
person lives
-attitudes towards academic performance differ
-stereotype threat persists
^culture can influence the score you get on a test
^when you are asked about your race before a test, you tend to do worst
CULTURE AND SEXUALITY
-societies vary dramatically in the conceptions of normal sexuality
e.g. Dr Kellogg in U.S., Ammassalik Inuit Society, Sambian society of Papua New Guinea
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CULTURE
-people often hold unrealistic goals
-they dream of persuading everyone else to be just like them
-they envision having all cultures together in perfect harmony without much effort
-the sociocultural perspective suggests we would be well-advised instead to
-recognize difference
-be aware of the possibility for misunderstandings
-work together to respect one another
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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
-harming and helping each otherÆsocial behaviour
-influencing others to think, feel and act a particular wayÆ social influence
-figuring out what others are like and why they behave as they doÆ social cognition
-Social PsychologyÆ they study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behaviour
AGGRESSION
-aggression: behaviour whose purpose is to harm another
-premeditated (planned) aggression: when people consciously decide to use aggression to achieve their goals
-impulsive aggression: when people aggress spontaneously without premeditation
-frustration-aggression principle: people aggress when their goals are thwarted
(µµZÇ]v[PÁZZÇÁv
-violent aggression shown in crime and sports
-nonphysical aggression encouraged in business, science, and everyday interpersonal reactions
-research shows sex difference in aggressionÆ males are more likely to show aggression, associated with presence of
testosterone
-Young men are responsible for 97% of the same-sex murders
-women are more likely to aggress using social harm
-Z}o]}vÁv]Ç[ÀP daytime temperature and its rate of violent crime is so strong and therefore, if
the average temperature in the U.S. were to increase by just 2 degrees Fahrenheit, we would observe 50000 more
violent crimes per year
ALTRUISM AND COOPERATION
-Altruism: behaviour that benefits another without benefiting onself
-reciprocal altruism: behaviour that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the
future
-cooperation: behaviour by two or more people that leads to mutual benefit
-riskyÆ prisoners dilemma (both not confess=both 1 yr in prison, 1 confess= A30 year and B0 years...etc)
GROUPS
-group: a collection of two or more people who believe they have something in common
-prejudice: a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on his or her group membership
-discrimination: positive or negative behaviour toward another person based on his or her group membership
-Being in groups can cause:
-Deindividuation: when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
- less likely to abide by their own moral rules
-Diffusion of responsibility: individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are
surrounded by others who are acting the same way
-social loafing: when people expend less effort when in a group than alone
-P}µ}o]}vWZvvÇ(}P}µ[]v]]oov]vP}P}vP}À]u
-u]Æ]vP}(vulÀÇ}v[]v]]o}]]}v}vP
People who are excluded in a groupÆ anterior cingulate cortex becomes active when you are in physical pain (excluded
from a group), right ventral prefrontal cortex is active
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Document Summary

Culture: a program of shared rules that govern the behaviour of members of a community. 2)a set of beliefs, values, and attitudes shared by most members of that community: a way a person identifies themselves. Individualist cultures: those in which individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others. To answer the question of whether someone is smart, you have to understand the cultural environment in which that person lives. ^culture can influence the score you get on a test. ^when you are asked about your race before a test, you tend to do worst. Societies vary dramatically in the conceptions of normal sexuality e. g. dr kellogg in u. s. , ammassalik inuit society, sambian society of papua new guinea. They dream of persuading everyone else to be just like them. They envision having all cultures together in perfect harmony without much effort. The sociocultural perspective suggests we would be well-advised instead to.