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Chapter Quiz

PSY 105 Chapter Notes - Chapter Quiz: Deductive Reasoning, Inductive Reasoning, Meteorology


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 105
Professor
Jane Heath
Chapter
Quiz

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1. Which of the following is most debatable as a true science?
A) chemistry
B) physics
C) psychology
D) biology
2. Psychology, like other sciences, relies on the scientific method.
A) True
B) False
3. Psychological research is designed to both to separate out the relative contribution of
factors like culture and personality and to think about how such various factors come
together to influence human behavior.
A) True
B) False
4. The natural law of __________ suggests that when something is set in motion, it has an
effect on other things.
5. What logical process starts with broad, basic principles and applies them in specific
situations to prove many smaller truths?
6. What are the two essential beliefs that science has regarding the world?
7. What British philosopher argued against the use of deductive reasoning because he
believed it was too susceptible to thinkers' biases?
A) Skinner
B) Popper
C) Kant
D) Baker
8. If individuals carefully observe the events in the world around them, they are often able
to discover the laws that govern those events.
A) True
B) False
9. What term refers to personal beliefs or conventional wisdom that a particular thinker
accepts as a broad, basic truth?
10. What logical process uses direct observations to generate broad conclusions?
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11. Define the term "hypothesis" and provide an example.
12. Observations of behaviors or any other events must be objectively testable. Which of
the following does not meet this criterion?
A) dollars spent in a department store
B) number of students in a school
C) frequency of reported car accidents
D) number of caring people in the world
13. Theories are the product of deductive reasoning.
A) True
B) False
14. Ideas that psychologists develop about the laws that govern processes and behavior are
called ___________.
15. What blended model is commonly used by psychologists to employ the best attributes
of deductive and inductive reasoning?
16. Describe the four steps used in the scientific approach to study behavior.
17. A given field of study is defined as a science by virtue of its:
A) methods
B) equipment
C) subject matter
D) findings
18. "Psychology is not a science," Adam argues. Which of the following is the BEST
argument opposing this claim?
A) Psychology is a science because it uses sophisticated technology in its research.
B) Psychology is a science because some of its early contributors were physiologists.
C) Psychology is a science because of the methods it uses.
D) Psychology is a science because it studies the brain and the rest of the nervous
system.
19. Which of the following adjectives would a scientist use most readily in describing the
universe?
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A) mysterious
B) lawful
C) simple
D) chaotic
20. Dr. Arceneaux is a meteorologist. Dr. Bianchini is a psychologist. With which of the
following statements would they most likely agree?
A) Like the weather, human behavior is inherently unpredictable.
B) The weather is predictable. Human behavior is not.
C) While the weather is unpredictable, human behavior is predictable.
D) Both the weather and human behavior are ultimately predictable.
21. The Greek philosophers used a type of reasoning known as ______ reasoning.
A) deductive
B) hypothetico-deductive
C) Socratic
D) inductive
22. Why did the Renaissance philosopher Francis Bacon question the validity of deductive
reasoning? Which type of reasoning did he suggest as an alternative?
A) Bacon believed that deductive reasoning was prone to biases. He suggested
hypothetico-deductive reasoning as an alternative.
B) Bacon believed that deductive reasoning was prone to biases. He suggested
inductive reasoning as an alternative.
C) Bacon believed that deductive reasoning often failed to result in general theories.
He suggested hypothetico-deductive reasoning as an alternative.
D) Bacon believed that deductive reasoning often failed to result in general theories.
He suggested inductive reasoning as an alternative.
23. Cecilia is using the formula F = M*A to solve a physics problem. Cecilia is using
______ reasoning.
A) hypothetico-deductive
B) empirical
C) inductive
D) deductive
24. Why might one argue that inductive reasoning is less susceptible to bias than deductive
reasoning is?
A) Inductive reasoning begins with a general theory rather than specific observations.
B) In inductive reasoning, the observations that would refute the theory are specified
in advance.
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