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Psychology (860)
PSY 105 (152)
Chapter 5

Week 5 Chapter 5

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Ryerson University
PSY 105
Tsasha Awong

Chapter 5 Perspectives of psychology Memory Systems: • Memory allows us to perform various functions essential to daily living: – Recalling personal experiences – Learning concepts and facts – Recognizing things and people – Acquiring skills and habits Three Important Processes : • Encoding: The process by which we perceive and bring in information to remember it. • Storing: The process by which we maintain (hold on to) information over time. • Retrieving: The process of bringing to mind information we learned in the past Sensory Memory Store : • Sensory information is kept in there for a few seconds or less. • A sort of filter of information because if information is not attended to, it will be forgotten. Sensory Memory Continued: • Iconic memory: A picture in your mind that decays very quickly • Echoic memory: An echo or sound in our head that decays very quickly. What Are The Characteristics of Short-Term Memory Store? - Limited capacity for a short time (e.g., few seconds) - Information needs to be rehearsed or will be forgotten www.notesolution.com - Working Memory: Maintain information “online” when to understand things that are said, solve problems or manipulate information. Encoding : • Encoding: The process by which we perceive and bring in information to remember it. • Elaborative encoding vs. visual imagery encoding vs. organizational encoding • PBD: Phonological (or acoustic) coding • BLT : Semantic coding What Is Long-Term Memory? • Ability to remember extensive amounts of information from a few minutes to a few hours to decades • Long-term potentiation: Strengthened synaptic connections • Explicit memory – Episodic memory – Semantic memory • Implicit memory – Procedural memory – Priming Implicit vs. Explicit Memory : • Implicit memory: - No conscious recall but influences our behaviour - We could show that we know something without being able to explain it verbally. e.g., drive a car • Explicit memory: - Memory/information that we can retrieve consciously. e.g.: the capital of Italy or your first day of school Procedural Memory & Priming: www.notesolution.com • Procedural Memory: It allows us to learn skills and develop habits from practice. It manifests itself as automatized actions. It’s memory for how to do things. • Priming : Enhanced ability to think of a stimulus as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus. Amnesia : • The case of HM • Anterograde amnesia • Retrograde amnesia Retrieval : • The process of bringing to mind information we learned in the past. • Cues to bring back information: – The more cues you are given, the easier to retrieve information – Encoding specificity principle: Trying to retriev
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