Perspectives of Psychology
Names to Remember
• Ivan Pavlov
• B.F. Skinner
• John B. Watson
• Albert Bandura
What Is Learning?
• Definition : Modification (or change), that is relatively permanent, in behaviours of a
1) Biological or genetic automatic behaviour: eating, maturation,…
2) Temporary state: Drugs, fatigue
• Gradual reduction in responding to an event that repeats itself but that is not important to
• The simplest form of learning
• The aplysia and nematode are able to habituate.
• Saves energy and time.
John B. Watson, Father of Modern Behaviourism :
“Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural
science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no
essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness
with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness.”
www.notesolution.com John B. Watson
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in
and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I
might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief,
regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I
am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have
been doing it for many thousands of years.”
John B. Watson continued :
• Classic study with Rosalie Rayner: Little Albert at 11 months
– Association between unpleasant noise & rat
– Conditioned emotional response
– Generalization of fear to everything that was white and furry
Classical Conditioning :
• Pavlov discovered it quite by accident
• Dog: hearing the researcher’s walking in the hallway is enough to get them ready
• You could replace conditioned by LEARNED
• Unconditioned = UNLEARNED or innate or natural
Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery :
www.notesolution.com • Extinction : Elimination of a CR by presentation of the CS without presentation of the
- It does not mean the association was forgotten!
• Spontaneous recovery: Reoccurrence of a response that was extinguished after
reintroduction of the CS.
Generalisation vs. Discrimination :
• Stimulus generalisation: Stimulus similar to CS that causes the CR.
• Gradient of generalisation: White rat white rabbit…white cat…cats
• Stimulus discrimination : When an organism can distinguish between 2 similar stimuli.
e.g., Red and green light, cat vs. lion
• Pavlov: The more 2 stimuli become similar (one is reinforced and the other one isn’t), the
dogs were unable to distinguish between them and respond (salivate) when both stimuli
• The dogs become very agitated during the experiment and after.
• Conflict of trying to respond to a stimulus and not the other: Pavlov termed this
• In discriminative learning, we need to be able to predict what will happen.
• In humans: Inconsistent parental discipline can lead to behavioural difficulties, acting out,