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Chapter 1

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Ryerson University
PSY 105
Helene Moore

PSY105­  Chapter 1: Yesterday and Today • Far right - SKINNER o He studied how humans and animals choose the behaviour they engage in o they do things because they receive awards • Far left- CHARLES DARWIN • theory of natural selection WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? • is the scientific study of mental processes and behaviour FOUR GOALS OF PSHYCHOLOGY • Description - "what" question • Explanation - why animals and humans do what they do • Prediction - being able to predict what is going to happen next • Control - changing the way things are to make things better LEVELS OF ANALYSIS When studying why a certain behaviour or mental process occurs, one can study the influences of • the brain • neutral activity • nervous system • alcohol makes us feel good and slows down the blood flow • the person • emotions, ideas and thoughts • everything about you that's personal and subjective • the group • friends, family. culture • impact people's behaviour PSYCHOLOGY'S ROOTS IN PHILOSOPHY • Philosophy is the study of knowledge and reality • HIPPOCRATES used direct observation to test his theory of medicine and developed one of the first psychological theories. He was a physician and was able to explain how a person is by 4 humors • Black bile - depression • Excess of blood - musical, joyous • Yellow bile - leads to anger and irritability • Phlegm - bore THE EARLY DAYS Wilhelm Windt • founder of philosophy • psychology lab was introduced in 1879 • he studied consciousness (what goes on in the human mind) • he looked at where people direct their attention • volunteering in certain areas • he started a movement called Voluntarism • he got other people interested in psychology Edward Titchener - Student • he studied how people think after seeing stimulus • he brough people in lab after they've presented with stimulus • he wanted to come up with language that constitute conciousness • his goal was to describe observable mental processes rather than to explain, predict or control • people gave different answers FUNCTIONALSIM • it is all about "Purpose" • goal of what we're doing • it was founded by WILLIAM JAMES • made the first lab in the US • wrote first textbook "Principles in Psychology". published in 1890 PSCHOANALYSIS • founded by Sigmund Freud • he believed in that 'don't think about consciousness, but think about unconsciousness • he questioned "What are you doing? Why are you doing?" • he thought human mind is an iceberg and everything is hidden in mind • people are unable to access it • he analyzed dreams and relied on hypnosis • he also believed in the fact that women cannot be moral and ethical compared to men BEHAVIOURISM • founded by Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, B.F Skinner and Albert Bandura • Skinner • mind should not be included in psychology and we should only study behaviour • scientific investigation should be focused only on behaviour you can observe • there are rewards and punishments for what humans do and they repeat that action over and over for the awards • Pavlov • contributi
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