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Chapter 3

PSY105 - Chapter3

by Anna
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Ryerson University
PSY 105
Kristin Vickers

Chapter 3 Neuroscience How do scientists study the nervous system 1Examining the autopsy tissue This is when people donated their brain after they die to let neuroscientists examine their brain however the drawback is it tells them little about how the system worked while the person was alive and using them 2Testing the behaviour of patients with brain damage to certain partsPatients with localized brain damage often have loss functions The loss of function then suggest what the brain region does when it is undamaged 3Recording brain activity or brain waves from the surface of the scalpScientists used electroencephalograms EGG to record brain activity during certain states awake and asleep The drawback of this analysis is that surface only provide a summary of activity over a large expense of tissuecan only pinpoint the location of activity in a general sense 4Animal studies Studies on animals made it possible to look closely at parts of functional brainNeuroimaging Technique that show visual images in awake humans Functional brain imaging techniques Allows us to watch the brain in action Positron emission tomography PETa harmless radioactive substance is injected into a persons blood Radiation detectors are then used to scan the persons brain Active brain areas have more blood flow and thus display a higher amount of radioactivity Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRIDetects the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin the blood molecule responsible for carrying oxygen after a person is exposed to magnetic pulses If the technology is available fMRI is usually preferable to PET because it does not require radiation and also is able to detect very quick changes in brain activityStructural neuroimaging techniques Provides images of the living and healthy brain structure of the brain Computerized axial tomography CATAn xray procedure which combines many xray images with the aid of a computer to generate crosssectional views and 3D images of the internal organs and structures of the body Magnetic resonance imaging MRIProvides a clearer higher resolution picture of the brains structure than the CT scan Structure of Neurons Neuronsa nerve cellCommunication among neurons is necessary for normal functioning of the brain and spinal cord The peripheral nervous system that runs throughout the rest of our bodies outside the brain and spinal cord is also made up of neurons About 100 billion neurons in the brain Organelles make it possible for neurons to live and function they enable the cell to make proteins and other molecules and produce energy All neurons are capable of communicating with other cells by producing and sending electrical signals Dendritesthe parts of neurons that collect input from other neurons
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