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Week 7 - Neurological Disorders

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Ryerson University
PSY 324
Ayesha Khan

Week 7 Neurological DisordersOctober2111358 PMTumorsA tumor is a mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled and that serves no useful functionSome tumors are malignant or cancerous and others are benignharmlessMajor distinction between malignancy and benignancy is whether the tumor is encapsulated whether there is a distinct border between the mass of tumor cells and the surrounding tissue If there is a border the tumor is benign the surgeon can cut it out and the tumour will not regrowIf the tumor grows by infiltrating the surrounding tissue there will be no clearcut border between the tumor and normal tissueMalignant tumors often metastasize which means that they will shed cells which then travel through the bloodstream lodge in capillaries and serve as seeds for the growth of new tumors in different locations in the bodyTumors damage brain tissue by two means compression and infiltrationEven a benign tumor can compress brain tissue and threaten a patients lifeCompression can directly destroy brain tissue or it can do so indirectly by blocking the flow of CSF and causing hydrocephalusMalignant tumors often cause both compression and infiltration It invades surrounding tissue and destroys the cells in its pathTumors are named for the spots they invade glioma from glial cells meningioma cells of the meninges pituitary adenoma pituitary gland etcDo not arise from neurons because they cannot divideSeizure DisordersA seizure is a period of sudden excessive activity of cerebral neurons Sometimes if neurons that make up the motor system are involved a seizure can cause a convulsion which is wild uncontrollable activity of the muscles However not all seizures cause convulsions most of them do notThere are different categories of seizure disordersPartial seizures vs generalizedPartial seizures have a definite focus or source of irritation eg a scarred region Involves a small amount of neurons Simple and complexseizures are two categories of partial seizuresSimple partial seizuresoften cause changes in consciousness but do not cause loss of consciousnessComplex partial seizures lead to loss of consciousness because of their particular location and severityPartial seizures involve relatively small portions of the brainGeneralized seizures are widespread involving most of the brain In many cases they grow from a focus but in some cases their origin is not discoveredThe most severe form of seizure is a tonicclonic seizure aka grand mal seizure It is generalized because it includes the motor systems of the brain and is accompanied by convulsions Often this type of seizure is accompanied by warning symptoms such as changes in mood twitching upon awakening and auras which can be different depending on the affected areaThe beginning of a tonicclonic seizure is called the tonic phase All the patients muscles contract forcefully and the person becomes unconscious Then the clonic phase beginsDuring the clonic phase the muscles begin trembling then start jerking convulsively Intense activity of the autonomic nervous system produces sweating and salivation Other types of seizures are far less dramaticChildren often experience absence seizures where they stare off into space Also knownBiological Psychology Page 1
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