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Chapter 4

Adult development chapter 4 textbook notes

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Ryerson University
PSY 402
Tara M Burke

Chapter 4: Physical Changes Skin - The outermost layer (epidermis): a thin covering of skin cells that protects the deeper 2 layer o Over time, epidermal skin cells lose their regular patterning - The middle layer (dermis): changes are considerably more noticeable as the cells responsible for the skin’s flexibility decrese o Collagen: protein molecule that makes up a large percentage of the body connective tissue undergoes cross-links, making the skin less flexible o Elastin: important protein in the dermis becomes less able to return to its original shape after being stretched o Sebaceous glands: normally provide oils that lubricate the skin become less active - Last is the subcutaneous fat layer: provides cushioning with smooths the curves of the arms, legs and face o This layer thins in middle adulthood- which causes less support for the layers above it which causes sagging and wrinkles - Skin discolouration o Capillaries and arteries in the skin may dilate and generally are more visible due to loss of fat o Varicose veins may develop and appear in the legs - Older adults experience bone loss in the jaw, changes in the cartilage in the nose and ears cause them to become longer- altering the faces shape - Genetic background plays a role in the rate of skin aging. Fair-skinned people tend to display more rapid effects of aging o Photoaging: age changes caused by radiation, UV rays accelerate the process of cross-linking and increase the production of free radicals - Botox: small amount of nerve poison is injected into the area of concern. This procedure paralyzes the muscle, hence relaxing the skin around it cause a temporary reduction in the appearance of wrinkles Hair - Hair greying: the number of pigmented (coloured hairs) diminishes over time o Reason hair loses its pigment: production of melanin slowly goes away. - Androgenetic alopecia: hair loss with increased age, effects 95% of adult men and 20% of adult women. This is when the follicles stop producing the long, thick, pigmented hairs known as vellus hair. Body Build - People get shorter as they get older which is more visible on women o With the weakening of the vertebrae, the spine collapses and becomes shorter - Lean tissue, or fat-free mass (FFM) decrease - BMI (body mass index) increases: 18.5-25 is healthy, 25-29.9 is overweight - Most adults weight increases from 20-50, then begins to decrease Mobility - Sarcopenia: age-related loss of muscle tissue. There is a reduction in the number of and size of muscle fibers, especially the fast twitch o loss of muscle mass can result in neg consequences such as risk of falling, mobility limitations, reduced quality of life - Loss of bone mineral depends on genetics - Adequate intake of foods high in magnesium can help prevent bone loss - “Creaky joints” tends to appear more in women than men - over the course of adulthood, joint problems are exhausted by outgrowths of cartilage which interferes with smooth movements of the bones against each other - Strength training that focuses on the muscles around the joint can be beneficial - Most important to minimizing joint pain= proper footwear - Middleaged people already experiencing joint pain will benefit from flexibility exercises Vital Bodily Functions Cardiovascular system - changes in the heart and arteries that surround it occur in middle aged people - The left ventricle of the heart: pumps oxygenated blood out to the arteries. It’s loss of efficiency over time contributes to the changes in the cardiovascular system as a whole. o Its walls become thicker and less able to contract, causing a reduction in diastolic functioning o As a result it ejects less blood to the aorta - Changes in the arteries occur because deposits of plaque accumulate along the arterial walls - There are sex differences in diastolic pressure, women are more likely to experience greater deterioration with age than men - Aerobic capacity: indexes cardiovascular efficiency, the maximum amount of oxygen that can be delivered through the blood - Cardias Output: the amount of blood that the heart pumps per minute o Both decline 10% per decade from 25 years +. This decline is more pronounced in males o Maximum heart rate also decreases along the years of adulthood - High density lipoproteins (HDLS), the plasma lipid transport mechanism responsible for carrying lipids from the peripheral
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