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Chapter 14

Adult Development Chapter 14 textbook notes

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Ryerson University
PSY 402
Tara M Burke

Chapter 14: SuccessfulAging Theoretical Perspectives Successful Aging: • Positive adaptation as reflected by contentment and satisfaction with quality of life in older adulthood 3 Interactive Components of SuccessfulAging: • Absence of disease and disability • Maintaining high cognitive and physical function • “Engagement with Life” • Approximately 95% of older adults fit the definition of successful aging o This percentage is too high Social Indicator Model: • Demographic and social structural variables such as, gender, age, marital status, and income account for individual differences in levels of well- being • Younger people predict that they’ll be upset, and less productive during their older ages, but that’s not really what ends up happening o For example, a lot of people don’t think they’ll be able to drive over the age of 65 but most still end up driving after that age • The challenges of aging – it is not as bas as younger adults think Subjective Well-Being  Subjective Well-Being: o Individual’s sense of happiness  For research purposes: concept divided into three components: o Positive affect o Negative affect o Life satisfaction Cognitive appraisals of: 1. Positive affect o Joy, happiness, interest 2. Negative affect o Anger, guilt, and sadness 3. Life-satisfaction o Overall evaluation of one’s life and one’s life circumstances ▪ Goal achievement, social comparisons, overall happiness • Different than affective appraisals above by: ▪ Being cognitively vs. emotionally driven ▪ Longer-term measure of affect Set-Point Perspective: • Subjective well-being reflects one’s personality traits 1 • Extroverts Males tend to have high life satisfaction scores (Mroczek & Spiro, 2005) Subjective Well-Being Paradox of Well-Being: • People may experience high subjective well-being despite facing challenges in their life Paradox Explained? #1 Social indicator model of well being - age, education, marital status, income all contribute to well being How do we reach high levels of subjective well-being, despite objective evidence? • Adaptation, aka habituation: (feeling that one can accommodate, despite negative circumstances, ex. getting a walker) • Learning to live with what you have/experience. • Behavioural modification, change, adjustment. Depends on: • Locus of control (internal vs. external) • Change is attributed to aging vs. disease process Subjective Well-Being Emotion-Focused Coping: • Reducing negative emotional responses associated with stress • Whatever you need to do to remove that negative emotion Problem-Focused Coping: • Targets the causes of stress directly in practical ways • Adults with higher self-efficacy more likely to use problem focused coping also more likely to score higher on overall well-being scores • Not beneficial to be always problem focused, as it is not always great to go for the problem as there is not always as solution and then one is left to deal with the emotions Social Comparison: People compare themselves to others ­ more likely to compare with those in your cohort Downward “It could be so much worse.” (+) Upward “I’ve got it pretty bad.” (-) aka ‘relative deprivation’ Relative Depriva
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