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PSY 402
Alba Agostino

Week 1 Adult Development andAging − biopsychosocial perspective − biological: how muscle changes (muscles..wrinkles), etc...physiological factors, genetics − how body’s functions and structures change throughout the aging process − psychological: how thoughts, feelings and behaviours change as we age, do our actions/personality change as we get olders......cognition, emotions, personality − sociocultural: (anti-aging products, etc).......social context, history, culture − social processes of aging reflect the environment or context, and include indicators of your position within various social structures in the family, community, culture, country and the world Four principles ofAD &A Principle: Meaning: changes are continuous over the lifespan individuals remain the “same” even though they change individual differences must be recognized people vary within and between age groups it is the survivors who grow old aging individuals are increasingly self-selected normal aging is different from disease intrinsic aging processes are different from those associated with illness Four principles detailed: 1. changes are continuous over the life span - eg. Changes that occur in later adulthood build on what has occurred during one’s past (continuity principle) 2. Only the survivors grow old - they have to not die…in other to get older - people who live to old age have survived the many threats of life that can cause others to fall by the wayside - the very fact that these people have managed to avoid death suggests they may have inherited good genes (biological factors), are emotionally healthy (psychosocial factors), or have surrounded themselves with a good support system (social factors)… 3. Individuality matters - as people age, they become more different from each other rather than more alike with increasing age, older adults become a more diverse segment of the population in terms of their physical functioning, psychological performance, and conditions of living - as people go through life, their experiences cause them to diverge from other of the same age in more and more ways - inter-individual differences: differences between people (principle that people become more different from each other with age) - intra-individual differences: differences within an individual (not all systems develop at the same rate within the person – while some functions may increase over time, others decrease) 4. “normal” aging is different from disease - normal aging or primary aging refers to set of changes built into the hard wiring of the organism, which progress at different rates among individuals but nevertheless are universal, intrinsic, and progressive (eg. Skin wrinkling) - impaired aging or secondary aging refers to changes due to disease; they are a function of an abnormal set of changes afflicting a segment rather than the entirety of the older population (eg. Cancer) - optimal aging: also called successful aging; refers to the way the aging process is slowed or altered because the individual has engaged in preventative and compensatory strategies to avoid negative changes that would otherwise occur with normal and impaired agi
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