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Chapter 2

Psy654Cognitive Psy chapter 2 .docx

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PSY 654
Jian Guan

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Psy270 Cognitive Psy \ Lec #2 Jan 10, 2012 -participation  DO two and write one about it. ~ The class data will be accumulated. - Wat need to do : th 1) Title page APA format 6 edition 2) Why are we doing this lab-- > useful to add alittle bit of background info.e...ex. ifits about tention, add alittle info about tension 3) What did the researchers know before the experiment. What lead them to it. 4) Brief description of the procedure. 5) If there are any specific terms, define and describe them. Ex. “feature search” describe what it is. 6) Another thing in the method section is....the dependent and independent variable.  you should be boring with it..meaning,..dependent variable is ______. There can be more than one --hint. Even if they give you a dependent and independent variabile, they don’t always list everything so careful!!! 7)do a statement of purpose. Investigate the nature of research. ***don’t say literally like, the purpose is to find the dependent/independent variable... 8) summary of the pattern of adapt. Ex. Reaction time increased/ decreased. Summary of the pattern** 9) for the actual number, you can include a graph or a table. Just decide if you need one and if you do, what would be the best way to present the result.ex. figure 1..blahlbhalbhal 10) remember to refer to the figures such as...ex. as seen in the figure 1 ....tell them where it is applied to. Discussion section -interpretation part. ex. If reaction time increased by number of item, what does it tell us,,what is the purpose. 1) Need to only find one primary research article that is related to the cog lab and explain how its related. Ex. It might have similar result, similar research...same type of method. 2) it has to be from a peer reviewed journal. 3) reference... no need to ref the cog mannul but do it for the article you found, and textbook. And lecture materials if used( as a personal communication type ref) - ---------------- NOW LECTURE PART key themes of anatomy -structure vs function.  look at the structure of a __(ex. Brain, neuron) and function -Localization vs. Distributed processing is some part of the brain localized or distributed The Neuron -dendritees receive signals. -signals are transported via electrically through axon where myelin sheath makes it faster. The signals are finally passed onto another neuron through ( you know) The synapse -in the pre synaptic neurons, the neurotransmitter -the neurotransmitter can be divided into 3(majors)- - -gaba sends inhibitory. -monoamine(dopamine, noraephrimine -excitory and inhibory is more focused***** Neuronal communication -firing rate of neurons. -action pot. Is all or none. (either on or off) signal or no signal  that means that the strg of the signal cannot be coded into an absolute amount meaning, cannot be stronger. Types of firignrates a: Spontatenous, excitatory, inhibitory activity.  any neurons when they are not doing anyting and just sitting around do some action pot. Which is in the spontatnous firing. From there, can go to exicattory or inhibitory. Brain imaging -oldest technique is post-mortem investigation  wait till someone dies. Look at their brain and look at the structure ``` not really the most efficient. -CT- computed tomography x-ray of the brain. C -MRI-magnietic residence imaging  surroundes you brain with v.strong magnetic field causing all the Hydrogen atom in the brain to line up then, sends a radiowave which makes the hydrogen to wriggle thus releasing their energy and then getting the image. singlecell recording—stick an electrode in an individual and see waht happens. Usually seen in animals -stimulation –reverse. Electrode but this time, stimulate that neuron and see if there is a behavioural response. Again done in animals. Exception isto people undergoing brain surgery. -lesion study – human and animals. In humans they are naturually occurring lesions. -TMS – transcranial magnetic stimulation – temporary lesion. Used in human. Creates a magnetic field over a small part of the brain rendering it useless.. ( shutting it down) .  EEG- electrocephalography– electrical pot. Naturally emitted from the brain -ERP – event related pot. This is EEG in response to stimulus. Ex. Present them a word. This tech has what we call excellent temporal resolution, meaning we can know within v.small time period when the brain is active. Within millisecond. It does not have a v.good spatial however meaning it does not give a v.good idea where the specific part of the brain is from. Only know if its from the left or right side of the brian.  -PET- injects a radioactive dye into the bloodstream. If certain parts of the brain is active, that radioactive will go to the brain and lightup. More blood required.  -fMRI – same idea but no radioactivity. Measures the hydrogen..increass the bloodflow. -MEG- same idea..measuing the magnetic pot. in the brain. -THESe mpoethod requires a comparion with a baseline measure.  the subtraction method. Brain structure and functions -anatomical ref. - brain, spinal cord related...mouse -the spinal cord...part of the brain closest part to the nose is called anterior or nostril. -medial.closer to the inside...lateral closer to the outside. Same idea applies to human but bare in mind that human stands on two feet. - DORSAL ANTERIOR POSTERIOR VENTRAL The brain -another way of dividing the brain is how it develops -in the development, in the central nervous system, it is developed in the plate, neuro tube...that tube pinches off to diff section four diff section . -brain stem is everything except for the telencephalon. However, depending on the text read, telecephalon is added BUT it is not part of the brain. Hind brain is rhombencephalon,, forebrain is prosencephalon hindbrain is closer to the spinal cord. HINDBRAIN -cerebellum: main ctrl is for find motor control. -pons: seen as a relay station where the neurons travel back and froth through the neuron -medulla: important for life sustatin function such as breathing rate, muscle tone, keeping you alive. MidBRAIN -tectum(roof)- two groups of neurons important for vision and hearing but really reflexes for vision and hearing. Tegmnetum(Floor)- main roll is..released neurontrainsmitter important for involuntary movement. Forebrain : diencephalon -hypothalamus: regulate body temp, hunger, thirst, released GH, its involved in fight or flight response. Generally endergonic response -Thalamus: another relay, but now we know that its roll is more complicated. WE do not know it completely Forebrain telencephalon * just know what contains in this. Such as the limbic system. -basal gangliaa: important for voluntary movemeny -limbic system: similar to basal ganglia, emotion regulation. -Cerebral cortex:
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