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BISC 101 (55)

Week 1 Review

6 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 101
Derek Bingham

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Week 1 1 FUNCTIONS & STRUCTURE OF ORGANELLES Cell membrane:  Bilipid layer  Controls what enters/leave cells  Protection and support Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER):  Mostly flattened sacs (cisternae) with ribosomes  Continuous with SER and nucleus  Makes/modifies/ships proteins to the Golgi complex  Adds carbohydrates to proteins to make glycoproteins (part of the glycocalyx) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER):  Tubes with no ribosomes  Continuous with RER  Makes lipids (including steroids and phospholipids)  Detoxifies alcohol and drugs Golgi complex:  Stack of cisternae with no ribosomes  Modifies, sorts, ships proteins (produced by bound ribosomes) to their final destinations o Destinations such as outside the cell, in the cell membrane, and inside membrane-bound organelles Lysosomes:  Small vesicle with digestive enzymes  Breakdown of bacteria, viruses, and toxins brought in via phagocytosis  Breakdown of old organelles to release stored molecules  Self-destruction of injured or dying cells (autolysis) Week 1 2 Mitochondria:  Bean-shaped organelle  Double membrane  Inner membrane highly folded  Makes ATP through cellular respiration Nucleus:  Largest organelle  Double membrane  Continuous with RER  Controls protein synthesis + metabolism  Stores DNA Vesicles:  Membrane-bound sacs that stores, imports, and exports materials such as food particles, solids, or liquids. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE 1. Exchanges materials with their environment 2. Obtains energy from organic molecules 3. Synthesize complex organic molecules 4. Reproduction 5. Responds to stimuli LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATIONS 1. Chemical 2. Cellular 3. Tissue 4. Organ 5. System 6. Organismal RIBOSOMES Function: Provides the site where information from the DNA is used to make proteins. TWO TYPES: Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes  Float in cytoplasm  Attached to membranes of the ER  Produces proteins used immediately in  Produces three groups of proteins: the cytosol o Proteins exported outside the cell o Cell membrane proteins o Membranous organelle proteins Week 1 3 NUCLEAR COMPONENTS  Nucleus houses DNA, the information required to make proteins.  By determining which proteins are made, the nucleus regulates all cellular activities.  Most cells have one nucleus.  Larger cells may have several nuclei, such as skeletal muscle cells.  Red blood cells have no nucleus. Nuclear Envelope:  Double membrane with pores  Regulates what material may enter or exit the nucleus Chromosomes:  When a cell prepares to divide, chromatin in the nucleus coils and condenses to form short rod-like structures called chromosomes.  Carries the genetic material that is carried from one generation to the next. Nucleolus:  One or two darker regions inside the nucleus  Produces the basic subunits of ribosomes, which are then transferred to the cytoplasm for assembly. CELL METABOLISM Cell metabolism is the sum total of all the chemical processes inside the cell. TWO TYPES: Anabolic reactions Catabolic reactions  Building up processes  Breaking down processes  Simpler building block molecules are used  Complex molecules are broken down into to make complex molecules simpler molecules  Energy is used  Energy is released  i.e., starch made from glucose subunits  i.e., glucose gets broken down CELLULAR GROWTH PROCESSES 1. Division* 2. Growth 3. Differentiation (specialization) – development of specific and distinctive features in cells COMMON CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN THE HUMAN BODY *Oxygen (O): *Hydrogen (H):  65% of body mass, major component of  9.5%, constituent of water and most inorganic (water, 2 ) and organic organic molecules molecules  Influences acidity of body f
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