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Chapter 7

Kin 110 - Chapter 7

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

KIN 110 – CHAPTER 7 – METABOLISM ENERGY :F UEL FOR W ORK - Metabolism: Chemical reactions needed to maintain life. Catabolism and anabolism o Metabolites: Any substances produced through metabolism - Chemical Energy: Energy in the bonds of atoms - Photosynthesis: Plants’ way of using solar energy for food - Energy is constant, no gain or loss, only different forms: Conservation of Energy, First Law of Thermoynamics - Lose half of our food energy as heat in the stages: 1. Digestion, Absorption and Transport 2. Breakdown of many small molecules to a few key metabolites 3. Complete transfer of energy to a form usable by cells W HAT IS M ETABOLISM - Metabolic Pathway: Series of chemical reactions of catabolism or anabolism o Never completely inactive - Catabolism: Breaking down of complex substances into simpler ones - Anabolism: Build up simple substances to complex ones T HE CELL IS THE M ETABOLIC PROCESSING CENTER - Cell: Living structural units of tissues, has two parts: nucleus and cytoplasm - Nucleus: Contains genetic information, mRNA and rRNA - Cytoplasm: Material inside the cell: cytosol, organelles, mitochondria o Cytosol: Fluid inside cell membrane, does glycosis and makes fatty acid o Organelles: Membrane-bound structures with special functions o Mitochondria: Organelle, production of ATP “power plant” of cell - Cofactors: Compounds needed to activate an enzyme, from vitamin or mineral o Coenzyme: Cofactor made from vitamin, mainly vitamin B W HO ARE THE K EY ENERGY P LAYERS ? - Adenosnie Triphosphate (ATP): Main energy fuel for cellular functions - NAD(H): Coenzyme transporter of ATP o From vitamin B Niacin - FAD(H2): Coenzyme transporter of ATP o From vitamin B riboflavin - NADPH: Coenzyme deliverer of energy for biosynthesis - Biosynthesis: Chemical reactions which turn simple molecules into complex biomolecules ATP - ATP is Adenosine-Phosphate-Phosphate-Phosphate - Energy is stored between the bonds of Phosphates - ATP *Break 1 Bond* ADP *Break 1 Bond* AMP - ATP, ADP, AMP interchangable (can change to ADP or AMP or ATP) - GTP: Similar to ATP, except has Guanosine instead of Adenosine E XTRACTING E NERGY FROM CARBOHYDRATES - 4 ways: Glycolysis, Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA, Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport Chain - Glycolysis: Anaerobic process which splits a molecule of glucose into 2 pyruvates, makes 2 atp and 2 NADH, occurs in cytosol - Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA: Aerobic reaction in mitochondria changes pyruvate to acetyl CoA by removing 1 carbon from pyruvate and adding Coenzyme A o Coenzyme A: Cofactor from vitamin B pantothenic acid o Since oxygen is needed to convert pyruvate, if oxygen is lacking, then pyruvate will change to lactate - Citric Acid Cycle: Aerobic Takes acetyl portion of acetyl CoA, oxidizes it for 2 CO2, 1 NADH, 1 FADH, 1 GTP o Oxaloacetate: Compound in the citric acid cycle, made from pyruvate o Also known as Krebs Cycle and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle - Electron Transport Chain: Aerobic Shuttles electrons from NAH and FADH to oxygen, producing water and ATP o Mitochondrial Membrane  Inner: Where he electron transport chain is located 
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