BPK 140 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Gastroenteritis, Avian Influenza, Genital Wart

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KIN 140 Book Notes
An Invitation to Health
Reading List 2
Chapter 9; pp. 228-253
-Viruses – small infectious organisms; smaller than bacteria
oCannot live without a host; must invade an animal or plant cell to reproduce
oMay or may not have envelope – outermost spiky layer
oSome viruses do not kill the host cell, but instead alter its function
oUsually viruses only infect a certain type of cell
oAntiviral drugs – don’t completely eradicate the viral infection, but can decrease its
severity and duration
oMost common viruses
Hepatitis virus – cause several forms of liver infection
Herpes virus – take up permanent residence in cells and periodically flare up
Influenza virus – causes the flu; can change outer protein coats so that individuals
restraint to one strain cannot fight off a new one
Norovirus – causes gastroenteritis in people
Papillomavirus – may be responsible for cervical cancer in younger women
Retrovirus – named for their backward sequence of genetic replication compared
to other viruses
Rhinovirus and adenovirus – cause upper respiratory tract infections and colds
Slow viruses – give no early indication off their presence but can produce fatal
illness within a few years
-Bacteria —one-celled organism
oHas a rigid cell wall that surrounds the cytoplasm in the cell
oHas DNA
oMost kinds of bacteria don’t cause disease
oHarmful bacteria release either enzymes that digest body cells or toxins that produce the
specific effects of such diseases
oAntibiotics – drugs that inhibit or kill bacteria
-Fungi – eukaryotic organisms that come in a variety of shapes and sizes
oYeast – single celled
oMolds or mushrooms – long chain of cells that can stretch for miles
oAre static, but can spread by reproductive spores or by growing threadlike fibers
oThey absorb nutrients from organic material
oAntifungal drugs
-Protozoa – single-celled, microscopic animals release enzymes and toxisn that destroy cells or
interfere with their function
oi.e. malaria amoebic dysentry, giardiasis
otreatment: general medical care to relieve symptoms, replacement of lost blood or fluids,
and drugs that kill the specific protozoan
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