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Chapter 11

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Big Five Personality Traits, Fiedler Contingency Model, Ken Blanchard

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Christopher Zatzick

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Chp 11: Leadership
Leadership as Supervision
Three General Types of Theories:
1. Trait Theories of Leadership - Theories that propose traits - personality, social, physical, or
intellectual - differentiate leaders from nonleaders
o Peter Principle - When people are promoted into one job based on how well they did
another, that assumes that the skills of one role are the same as the other
o Most traits that emerged as leadership traits under Big Five Personality Model
Extraversion related to leader emergence
Conscientiousness and openness to experience also related
o Traits can predict leadership
o Traits do a better job at predicting emergence of leaders than distinguishing between
effective and ineffective leaders
o EI may allow leader to be more effective as they show more empathy
2. Behavioural Theories of Leadership - Theories that propose that specific behaviours differentiate
leaders from nonleaders
Ohio State Studies
o Initiating Structure - The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her
role and the roles of employees in order to attain goals
o Consideration - The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized
by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings
Michigan Studies
o Production-Oriented Leader - A leader who emphasizes the technical or task aspects of the
When subordinates experience pressure from unclear tasks or deadlines, when
there's clarity on how to perform tasks and what goals are
o Employee-Oriented Leader - A leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations
When task is interesting, when people don't know what to do or lack knowledge

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Leadership Grid - A two-dimensional grid outlining 81 different leadership styles
Situational, or Contingency, Theories - Theories that propose leadership effectiveness is dependent
on the situation
Four Situational Theories:
Fiedler Contingency Model - A leadership theory that proposes effective group performance
depends on the proper match between the leader's style of interacting with his or her followers and
the degree to which the situation gives the leader control
o Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Questionnaire - Determines whether individuals are
primarily interested in good personal relations (relationship-oriented) or interested in
productivity (task-oriented)
o Three Contingency Dimensions:
Leader-Member Relations: The degree of confidence, trust, and respect members
have for their leader
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