BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Theory X And Theory Y

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Ch. 4 – Theories of Motivation
- successfully motivating indivs req identifying their needs & making it possible for them to achieve those
What is Motivation?
- motivation = process that accounts for indiv’s intensity, direction & persistence of effort toward
reaching goal
 intensity = how hard person tries
 direction = quality of effort
 persistence = how long person can maintain effort
- Douglas McGregor: Theory X & Theory Y, 2 distinct views of human beings
 Theory X = negative
 employees dislike work, will avoid it, must be coerced w/ punishment to achieve goals
 exclusively driven by extrinsic motivators
 Theory Y = positive
 employees like work, seek responsibility, committed to goals
 exclusively driven by intrinsic motivators
 neither theory alone fully accounts for employee behaviour
 not based on personality but rather situation
- intrinsic motivators = come from person’s internal desire to do sth
 due to interest, challenge, personal satisfaction
 when indivs genuinely care about their work, look for better ways to do it, energized & fulfilled
by doing it well
 reward from work itself
- extrinsic motivators = come from outside person
 incl. pay, bonuses, other tangible rewards
- intrinsic & extrinsic motivation may reflect situation rather than indiv personalities
- to self-motivate, asking yourself whether you can accomplish task is more successful than telling
yourself to do task
- needs theories = describe types of needs that must be met to motivate indivs
 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory (2-factor theory),
McClelland’s theory of needs
- process theories = help us understand actual ways in which we & other can be motivated
Needs Theories of Motivation
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
 physiological: hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, other bodily needs
 safety: security & protection from physical & emotional harm
 social: affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship
 esteem: internal esteem factors (self-respect, autonomy, achievement) & external esteem factors
(status, recognition, attention)
 self-actualization: growth, achieving one’s potential, self-fulfillment
 drive to become what one is capable of becoming
 as one need is substantially satisfied, it no longer motivates
 next need up on hierarchy becomes more dominant
 lower-order needs = physiological & safety
 satisfied externally
 higher-order needs = social, self-esteem, self-actualization
 satisfied internally
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- Motivation-Hygiene Theory
 factors that lead to job satisfaction (motivators) separate from those that lead to job
dissatisfaction (hygiene factors)
 hygiene factors: quality of supervision, pay physical working conditions, relationships w/
others, job security
 when these are adequate, ppl not dissatisfied but not motivated either
 motivators: emphasize factors assoc. w/ work itself/outcomes directly derived from it
promotional opportunities, personal growth opportunities, etc
- critics of Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory
1) limited by reliance on self-reports
 when things going well, ppl tend to take credit
 if things do not go well, blame external enviro
2) reliability of methodology questionable
 raters have to make interpretations, so may contaminate finding by interpreting one
response in 1 manner while treating similar response differently
3) no overall measure of satisfaction used
 person may dislike part of job, yet sill think job acceptable overall
4) assumed that relationship exists b/t satisfaction & productivity
 Herzberg only looked at satisfaction
- McClelland’s theory of needs
 need for achievement = drive to excel, achieve in relation to set of standards, strive to succeed
 need for power = need to make others behave in way that they would not have behaved
 need for affiliation = desire for friendly & close interpersonal relationships
 high-achievers perform best when they perceive probability of success as 50/50
 dislike high odds b/c no satisfaction from success of pure chance
 dislike low odds (high prob of success) b/c no challenge of skills
 high achievers do not nec. make good managers
 interested in how they do personally, not in influencing others to do well
 ppl high in need for power & low in affiliation make best managers
McClelland argues these needs subconscious, few orgs willing to invest in measuring
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find more resources at oneclass.com
Process Theories of Motivation
- go beyond indiv needs & focus on broader pic of how one motivates one’s self & others
- incl. expectancy theory, goal-setting theory, self-efficacy theory, reinforcement theory
- expectancy theory = employees motivated to exert high lvl of effort when they believe:
1) effort will lead to good performance
2) good performance will lead to org rewards (i.e. salary increases/intrinsic rewards)
3) rewards will satisfy employees’ personal goals
- expectancy theory focuses on 3 relationships: expectancy, instrumentality, valence
 effort-performance = expectancy
 If I give max effort, will it be recognized in my performance overall?
 ppl only motivated if perceive link b/t effort & performance
 performance-rewards relationship = instrumentality
 If I get good performance appraisal, will it lead to org rewards?
 when pay based on seniority, “kissing up” to boss, employees likely to see performance-
rewards relationship as weak & demotivating
 rewards-personal goals relationship = valence
 If I’m rewarded, are rewards attractive to me?
 some managers incorrectly assume all employees want same thing
 many managers limited in rewards they can distribute
- ppl do better when get feedback on how well they are progressing toward goals b/c helps ID
discrepancies b/t what they have done & what they want to do
 feedback guides behaviour
- goal-setting theory
 intentions to work toward goals major source of work motivation
 goals tell employee what needs to be done & how much effort needed
 how does goal setting motivate?
1) goals direct attention
oindicate where indivs should direct efforts when choosing among things to do
2) goals regulate effort
osuggest how much effort should be put into task
3) goals increase persistence
owhen ppl keep goals in mind, they will work hard on them, even face of obstacles
4) goals encourage dvlpt of strategies & action plans
oonce goals set, indivs can dvlp plans for achieving them
 in order for goals to be effective, they should be SMART
 specific: indivs know exactly what is to be achieved
 measurable: goals proposed can be tracked & reviewed
 attainable: goals, even if difficult, are reasonable & achievable
 results-oriented: goals should support vision of org
 time-bound: goals to be achieved w/in stated time
- some goals lead employees to focus on single standard & exclude all others
- when learning sth important, goals related to performance may cause ppl to become too focused on
outcomes & ignore changing conditions
- promotion focus = self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals thru advancement &
- prevention focus = self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals by fulfilling duties &
- self-efficacy theory = indiv’s beliefs in ability to perform a task influence their behaviour
 in difficult situations, ppl w/ low self-efficacy more likely to lessen effort/give up
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com