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Chapter 11

OB Chapter 11 - Leadership.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Business Administration
BUS 272
Christopher Zatzick

Chp 11: Leadership Leadership as Supervision Three General Types of Theories: 1. Trait Theories of Leadership - Theories that propose traits - personality, social, physical, or intellectual - differentiate leaders from nonleaders o Peter Principle - When people are promoted into one job based on how well they did another, that assumes that the skills of one role are the same as the other o Most traits that emerged as leadership traits under Big Five Personality Model  Extraversion related to leader emergence Conscientiousness and openness to experience also related  o Traits can predict leadership o Traits do a better job at predicting emergence of leaders than distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders o EI may allow leader to be more effective as they show more empathy 2. Behavioural Theories of Leadership - Theories that propose that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from nonleaders  Ohio State Studies o Initiating Structure - The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and the roles of employees in order to attain goals o Consideration - The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings  Michigan Studies o Production-Oriented Leader - A leader who emphasizes the technical or task aspects of the job  When subordinates experience pressure from unclear tasks or deadlines, when there's clarity on how to perform tasks and what goals are o Employee-Oriented Leader - A leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations  When task is interesting, when people don't know what to do or lack knowledge  Leadership Grid - A two-dimensional grid outlining 81 different leadership styles  Situational, or Contingency, Theories - Theories that propose leadership effectiveness is dependent on the situation Four Situational Theories:  Fiedler Contingency Model - A leadership theory that proposes effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style of interacting with his or her followers and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control o Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Questionnaire - Determines whether individuals are primarily interested in good personal relations (relationship-oriented) or interested in productivity (task-oriented) o Three Contingency Dimensions:  Leader-Member Relations: The degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have for their leader  Task Structure: The degree to which job assignments are procedurized  Position Power: The degree of influence a leader has over power-based activities (hiring, firing, etc.) o Leader has more control with good leader-member relations, high structure, and strong position power o Task-oriented leaders perform best in high/low control o Relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control  Situational Leadership - A leadership theory that focuses on the readiness of followers (Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard) o  Path-Goal Theory - A leadership theory that says it's the leader's job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of he group or organization o Three guidelines to be effective:  Determine the outcomes subordinates want  Reward individuals with their desired outcomes  Let individuals know what they need to do to receive rewards o Four leadership behaviours: i. Directive Leader: Lets followers know what is expected of them, schedules, and guidance (Initiating structure) ii. Supportive Leader: Friendly and shows concern for needs of followers (Consideration) iii. Participative Leader: Consults with followers and uses suggestions before making decisions iv. Achievement-Oriented Leader: Sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at highest level o Two contingency variables that affect leadership: Environmental and Personal Characteristics  Employee performance and satisfaction positively influenced when leader compensates for what is lacking in either employee or work setting  Not all leaders are adaptable to the same degree  Substitutes for Leadership Characteristics of
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