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Chapter 8

BUS 272 - Chapter 8.docx

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Department
Business Administration
Course
BUS 272
Professor
Graeme Coetzer
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 8 Team dynamics Team and informal groups o Team groups of 2+ ppl who interact and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated w/ org objectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity w/in an organization Types of teams Departmental teams employees w/ similar/complementary skills located in same unit of functional structure; usually minimal task interdependence b/c each person works w/ employees in other depts Production/service/leadership teams typically multi-skilled , team members collectively produce a common product/service or make ongoing decisions; production/service typically assembly-line type of interdependence, leadership usually tight interactive(reciprocal) interdependence Self-directed teams similar to production/service but organized around work processes that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, substantial autonomy over execution Advisory teams teams that provide recommendations to decision makers (e.g. committees, advisory councils, work councils, review panels); temporary or permanent, some w/ rotating membership Task force (project teams) usually multiskilled, temp teams whos assignment is to solve a problem, realize an opp, design a product/service Skunkworks multiskilled teams that are usually located away from the org and relatively free of its hierarchy; often initiated by entrepreneurial team leader who borrows ppl and resources (bootlegging) to design a product or service Virtual teams members operate across space/time/org boundaries and are linked via info tech to achieve org tasks, may be temp or permanent Communities of practice may be informal groups, but increasingly formal teams bound together by shared expertise and passion for a particular activity/interest; main purpose is to share info and rely on info tech as main form of interaction o Informal groups little/no interdependence, no org mandated purpose; exist primarily for the benefit of their members Join for several reasons drive to bond; social identity theory (individuals define themselves by group affiliations) shape/reinforce self-concept; accomplish tasks that cant be achieved by individuals working alone; comfort of having other people around in stressful situations Advantages and disadvantages of teams o Advantages Under right conditions, teams make better decisions, develop better products/services, create more engaged workforce Quickly share info and coordinate tasks (slower and more prone to mistakes if trad. Led by advisors) Superior customer service more breadth of knowledge and expertise to customers than individual stars Increased motivation drive to bond, accountable to team members, improved performance when employees work near others (performance relative to others) o Disadvantages Usually better suited to work that is sufficiently complex division of work into specialized roles = more efficient and effective Process losses resources (including time and energy) expended toward team dev and maintenance rather than the task Much easier for an individual to coordinate his own tasks than w/ other ppl Apparent problem when staff are added/replaced new members need to learn how team operates and how to coordinate w/ other members Brooks law aka. mythical man-month; principle that says that adding more ppl to a late software project only makes it later Social loafing occurs when ppl exert less effort (and usually perform at a lower level) when working in groups than when working alone Most likely to occur in large teams where individual output is difficult to identify; employees put out less effort when team produces single output not as worked that individual performance will be noticed Less likely to occur when individual effort is more noticeable, when task is interesting, among those members who value team membership and believe in working towards team objectives A model of team effectiveness o Effectiveness achieves objectives, helps individual team members fulfill their needs, is able to maintain commitment of members o team doesnt fall apart o Organizational and team development All factors beyond the teams boundaries that influence its effectiveness More work together when at least partly rewarded for team performance Comm systems help virtual teams highly dependent on info tech to coordinate Org structure teams work best when organized around work processes b/c increases interaction Org leaders high-performance teams rely on those leaders who provide support and strategic directions while team members focus on operational efficiency and flexibility Physical layout of work space Team design elements o Task characteristics Teams operate better than individuals working alone on work that is sufficiently complex division into specialized roles which require frequent coordination w/ each other; well-structured tasks Task interdependence the extent to which team members must share materials, info, or expertise in order to perform their jobs Pooled interdependence minimal interdependence (e.g. resources shared from a common source) Sequential interdependence output of one person is the direct input for another person/unit Reciprocal interdependence work output is exchanged back and fo
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