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Chapter 4

CRIM 103 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Noxious Stimulus, B. F. Skinner, Behavioural Sciences


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 103
Professor
Chantal Faucher
Chapter
4

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Origins of criminal behaviour: learning and situational factors
Behaviorism
Cognitive processes are those internal mental process that enable humans to imagine,
to gain knowledge, reason, and evaluate information
Unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
A stimulus is a person, object that elicits behaviour
Response is the eliited behaviour
Skinner theory of behaviour
Believed the primary goal of psych is the prediction and control of behaviour
Variable is any behaviour that can be measured
To understand the development of delinquency and criminal behaviour are most focus
on environmental stimuli, observable behaivour and rewards
Behaviourism as a method of science
Knowledge about human behaviour can be best advanced if scientists use references
that have a physical basis and can be publicily observed by others
Every psychological experiment should be anchored to something that we can all
observe
Behavioural science data must be comparable to be verified or disconfirmed
Behaviourism as a perspective of human nature
Humas differ only in degree from their animal ancestry
Situationism refers to the belief that all behaviour is at the mercy of the stimuli in the
environment and individuals have universally no control
Reductionism complex human behaviour can be broken down into more simple
behaviour
Skinnerian concepts
Operant conditioning
Established an association between behaviour and its consequences
Learning to make or withhold a response beacuse of its consequences
Fundamental learning process that is acquired by the consequences that follows the
behaviour
Reinforcement
Anything that increases the probability of future responding
Positive- gain something we desire as a consequence of certain behaviour
Negative- avoid an unpleasant event as a consequence of certain behaviour
Punishment and extinction
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