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Chapter 5

CRIM 316 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Paraphilia, Courtship Disorder, Flunitrazepam


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5: Types and Typologies of Sexual Offenders
Factors to consider when categorizing sex offenders
oInterpersonal & situational characteristics; victim-choice information; personal & criminal histories;
attitudes & beliefs; environment where offense takes place; motivation for committing sexual
offense; stable (historical) & dynamic (changeable) characteristics; background & cognitive traits;
etc.
Specialization and Generalization of Offending Behavior
Only small number of individuals are responsible for committing large % of all criminal acts
Sex offenders are more likely to be generalists than “specialists,” and most do not persist in committing
many sexual offending over long period of time
Many current treatment programs & supervisions & management strategies are based on assumption that
sex offenders are unique group of offenders who specialize in sex crimes  mostly false
Versatility of offending consistent with population of sex offenders
oChild sexual abusers more likely to specialize than rapists but they are still more likely to commit a
greater number of nonsexual offenses than sexual offenses
oBoth rapists & child sexual abusers more likely to have previously committed property offenses
than sexual offenses & rapists more likely to have committed previous violent offenses than sexual
offenses
oStudy found that when sex offenders recidivated with another sex offense, it tended to be same
one they were originally convicted of
oSmallbone & Wortly (2004) – identified 4 types of offenders: intrafamilial, extrafamilial, mixed-
type, & deniers. 64.4% had previous convictions but that 86.3% of those convictions were for
nonsexual offenses
Mixed offenders had most sexual offenses (41%) of all groups but 62% had nonsexual
convictions
Very few was driven by sexual disorders or paraphilias – in fact, paraphiliac activity more
likely to be significantly linked to nonsexual offending
Typologies of Rapists
Studies found some cognitive factors present in many aggressive offenders, including negative views of
women, endorsement of rape myths, condoning violence, and displaying a hyperidentification with the
masculine role
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Many rapists also display personality deficits such as a sense of worthlessness and low self-esteem, a sense
of vulnerability, impaired social relations, a dysphoric mood state, and a mismanagement of aggression
Also exhibit traits of social inadequacy, leading to negative emotional states and ultimately resulting in low
self-esteem, stress, anxiety, anger, hostility, and aggressive behavior
Many rapists begin committing deviant sexual acts at young age – half of known pop of sexual assaulters
have attempted or committed first deviant acts before age 18
Because sex drives surge dramatically in young boys during puberty, it is important at this time to establish
proper socio-sexual interactions
(Broad) Rape typology by primary motivations of offense: Sexual or non-sexual (Ex. power) in nature
oFeminist perspective – rape is tool that men use to dominate and control women
oRape not driven by sexual needs alone – most rapists aroused more by consensual than non-
consensual sex
Rape typology based on earlier characteristics and motivation for committing offense (4 categories):
Sexually Motivated Offenses
Exclusively Sexual (Motivated purely by sexual needs – non-sadistic)
oSee violence as only way to secure goals of sexual gratification
o“courtship disorder” – inability to form normal relationship with partner of same age
o“gentleman rapists” – only use as much force necessary
oProblem with intimate relations & feel they lack ability to establish satisfying love relationship with
woman
Sadistic
oAchieve sexual gratification from victims’ pain and/or fear  May lead to sexual murder – most
dangerous
oPredatory, high recidivism rate, stranger attacks, violent, little empathy, & high degree of planning
oOften APD – impulsivity, aggressive, unstable lives, no long term plans, deceitful, irresponsible,
reckless disregard for safety of others, lack remorse/ empathy, seek pain & humiliation to become
sexually excited
Non-sexually Motivated Offenses
Power/ control
oSexual expression of aggression – often powered by anger and hatred
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oFeminist theory of rape – deep-rooted social traditions of male dominance & female exploitation
oProposes that humiliation of women causes sexual arousal in the offenders, allowing the men to
dominate and control vulnerable female victims
oRape cases with date-rape drugs or Rohypnol – offender create situation where he is in control of
victim
oRape in war was viewed as ultimate humiliation of an enemy because it symbolizes a defiling of its
people
Was often encouraged as a way to motivate hatred of enemies as well
But extent of rape depends on status of women in society – some consider women as
equal therefore rape is serious crime and some consider women as objects therefore
allowing
Opportunistic
oAdventure seeking individuals who lead impulsive, delinquent lifestyles – use environment to their
advantage and may commit an offense is an opportunity presents itself
o“Recreational” / “situational” – commit rape during course of another crime such as burglary
o“Generalists” who commit more nonsexual crimes than sexual
oTend to be compulsive (poor impulse control), history of antisocial behavior, poor social &
relationship skills, poor socialization in childhood – often grew up with violent parents style
oPerceived social inadequacy may increase level of stress and anxiety, which will in turn disinhibit
sexual aggression and facilitate offending behavior
Typologies of Child Sexual Abusers
Many child sexual abusers characteristics: tend to be socially inept in adult relations, low self-esteem,
feeling of inadequacy, sense of worthlessness & vulnerability (similar to rapists)
oBut opposite of those who are overly aggressive, act on impulse, and are insensitive to victims’
feelings
Usually seek mutually comforting relationship with child  Find comfort in relationship with children that
they consider to be passive, dependent, psychologically less threatening than adults, and easy to
manipulate
Often connection between negative affective states and deviant sexual behavior for child sexual abusers –
inadequacy, humiliation, and loneliness
Some study them based on intrafamilial or extrafamilial while others explain child sexual abuse among 3
dimensions: Age difference, specific sexual behavior, and sexual intent
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