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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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PSYC 221
Richard Wright

Ch. 3 - Perception Bottom-up processing - processing that begins with stimulation of the receptors Recognition-by-components (RBC) - [Irving Biederman] proposes that we perceive objects by perceiving elementary features called geons Geons - perceptual building blocks that can be combined to create objects Characteristic of RBC: we can recognize an objects even if we are able to perceive just a few of is geons/ ex. an airplane has a total of 9 geons, but it is recognized correctly most of the time if only 3 geons are present. Top-down processing - processing that begins with a person’s prior knowledge or expectations Feedback signals - neural signal that travels back from higher centers to influence incoming signals -perception of the size of an object does not depend solely on the size of the object’s image on the receptors (size constancy) speech segmentation - the process of perceiving individual words within the continuous flow of the speech signal (ability to tell when one word ends and the next one begins) theory of unconscious inference (Helmholtz) - some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions that we make about the environment  Likelihood principle - we perceive the object that is most likely to have caused the pattern of stimuli we have received Gestalt psychology - perceptual organization Perceptual organization - the way elements are grouped together to create larger objects Laws of perceptual organization - explain how small elements of a scene or a display become perceptually grouped to form larger units (these laws = heuristics) Law of good continuation - points that, when connected, result in straight of smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together, and the lines tend to be seen in such a way as to follow the smoothest path. Also, objects that are overlapped by other objects are perceived as continuing behind the overlapping object Law of pragnanz/law of good figure/ law of simplicity - every stimulus pattern is seen in such a away that the resulting structure is as simple as possible Law of similarity - similar things seem to be grouped together Law of familiarity - things that form patterns that are familiar or meaningful are likely to be grouped together Gestalt laws are actually not laws, but heuristics, because they sometimes lead to incorrect perceptions Heuristics - rules of thumb that provide the best-guess solution to a problem Algorithm - procedure that is guaranteed to solve a problem Regularities in the environment - characteristics in the environment that occur frequently ex. blue is associated with open sky) Physical regularities - regularly occurring physical properties of the environment (ex. there are more vertical and horizontal orientations in the environment that oblique (angled) orientations Oblique effect - people perceive horizontals and verticals more easily than other Light-from-above heuristic - assumption that light is coming from above (people make this assu
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