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Chapter 4& 6

ch4 and ch 6 definitions

Course Code
PSYC 355
Robert Ley
4& 6

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Ch 4 ~ The Self, Identity, Emotion, and Personality
Self-understanding - individual's cognitive representation of the self; substance and content of self-conceptions
- social cognitive construction = develop capacity to interact with their sociocultural experiences to inf luence their
self understanding
- ex. Student, movie fan
- adole. = based on various roles and membership cateogires (number of aspect of the self)
Possible self - what individuals might become, what they would like to become, adn what they are afraid of becoming
Self- esteem - global evaluative dimension of the self; aka. Self-worth, or self image
- may not be accurate perceptions of the self
- decrease when children make transition from elementary to middle school
- after many life transitions person's self esteem often decreases; flunuates across lifespan
- decrease in adole increase in twenties leveled off in thirties rose in forites to 60s
- females lower throughout lifespan
- physical appearance major factor
- social context inf luences development of this
- low = temporary, can devleop to other problems = depression, anorexia, delinquency, adjustment problems, suicide =
-increase 1. identify cause, 2. provide emo suppor t and social approval, 3. foster achievement 4. help cope
Self-concept - domain specific evaluatoins of the self
Narcissism - self centred and self concerned approach toward others
- unaware of their actual self and how others percieve them = adjustment problems
- rarely show empathy toward others, often devalue people around them to protect their own self esteem
- respond with rage and shame if others do not admire them
- most grandoise when self-esteem is threatened
- adole more aggressive only when they are shamed
- covert and over t = poor adjustment, mod. = health adjustment
- high self esteem and narcissism = high aggression
Identity vs. Identity
- Erikson's 5
developmental stage; occurs during adole where they are faced with deciding who they are, what they
are all about, where they are going in life
- confront, try out new/different roles and exper ience psychosocial morator ium
- successful cope with conf licting role and identities emerge with new sense of self, don't = identity confusion =
withdraw, isolate themselves from peers and family, lose identity
-resolution to identity issue don't mean identity will be stable through life; just person who develop identity would be
more flexible and adaptive, etc.
Psychosocial morator ium - Erikson; gap between childhood and secur ity and adult autonomy that adole experience as par t of their identity
- try out different roles and personalities
Crisis - period of identity development during which the adole is choosing among meaningful alternatives
Commitment - part of the identity development in which adole show a personal investment in what they are going to do
Identity diffusion - Marcia's term for the state adole are in when tehy have not yet experienced an identity cr isis (explore alternatives) or
made any commitments
- undecided bout occupational adn ideological cohices, show little interest
Identity foreclosure - Marcia; state adole are in when they have made a commitment but have not exper ienced an identity crisis
- often occurs when parents hand down commitmentsto their adole in authoritarian way therefore no oppor tunities to
Identity moratorium - Marcia; state of adole who are in the midst of an identity crisis but who have not made a clear commitment to an
Identity achievement Marcia; adole who has undergone an identity crisis and made a commitment
Narrative approach- asking individuals to tell their life stories and evaluate the extent to which their stories are meaningful and
- to examine identity changes in depth
Narrative identity - stories ppl construct and tell about themselves to define who they are for themselves and others
- adole and emerging adults = stoires we live by
Identity consolidation - process of refining and enhancing identity choices that are made in emerging adulthood continues into early
adulthood or middle
MAMA - moratorim achievement moratorium achievement
- pattern of individuals who develop positive identities
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