Psychology Chapter 11 Glossary
Emotion: A state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals,
subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action.
Primary Emotions: Emotions that are considered to be universal and biologically based. They include fear, anger,
sadness, joy, surprise, contempt, and disgust.
Secondary Emotions: Emotions that are specific to certain cultures.
Facial Feedback: The process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion
Mirror Neurons: Brain cells that fire when a person or animal observes others carrying out an action; they are
involved in empathy, imitation, and reading emotions. In human beings, mirror neurons enable
us to identify what others are feeling, understand other peoples intentions, and imitate their
feelings or actions.
Display Rules: Social and cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express (or
Emotion Work: Expression of an emotion, often because of a role requirement, that a person does not really
General Adaptation According to Hans Seyle, a series of physiological reactions to stress occurring in three phases:
Syndrome: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
HPA Axis: Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis; a system activated to energize the body to respond
to stressors. The hypothalamus sends chemical messengers to the adrenal cortex to produce
cortisol and other hormones.
PNI: Psychoneuroimmunology; the study of the relationships among psychology, the nervous and
endocrine systems, and the immune system.
Locus of Control: A general expectation about whether the results of your actions are under your own control
(internal locus) or beyond your control (external locus).
Primary Control: An effort to modify reality by changing other people, the situation, or events; a “fighting back”
Secondary Control: An effort to accept reality by changing your own attitudes, goals, or emotions; a “learn to live
with it” philosophy. Emotions and the Brain
- Regions of the right prefrontal region are specialized for the impulse to withdraw or escape (as in disgust and
fear). Regions of the left prefrontal cortex are specialized for the motivation to approach others (as in
happiness, a positive emotion, and anger, a negative one)
- People who have greater-than-average activation of the left areas, compared with the right, have more positive
feelings, a quicker ability to recover from negative emotions, and a greater ability to suppress negative
- People with damage to this area often lose the ability for joy