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Chapter 1

MGT 2030 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Big Five Personality Traits, Stereotype, Fundamental Attribution Error

Course Code
MGT 2030
Robert Ellis

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Organizational Behaviour
Perception and Personality
The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning to
their environment. Behaviour is based on perception, not on reality itself.
When individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or
externally caused.
Distinctiveness: Does the individual act the same way in other situations?
Consensus: does the individual act in the same manner as others in the same situation?
Consistency: Does the individual act in the same manner over time?
Perceptual Errors
Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to underestimate external factors and
oerestiate iteral fators he akig judgets aout others’ ehaiour.
Self-Serving Bias: The tede to attriute oe’s suesses to iteral fators hile puttig
the blame for failures on external factors.
Selective Perception: People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests,
background, experience, and attitudes.
Halo Effect: Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic,
such as intelligence, likeability, or appearance. For example, attractive individuals are judged to
be warm, kind, and trustworthy.
Contrast Effects: A perso’s ealuatio is affeted  oparisos ith other idiiduals
recently encountered
Projection: Attriutig oe’s o harateristis to other people.
Stereotyping: Judging someone on the basis of perception of the group to which that person
belongs (race, nationality, religion, gender)
Prejudice: An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular
stereotyped group. A Gallup survey found that 46% of US blacks reported being treated
unfairly in the past 30 days.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with
how he or she is perceived by others.
-Most famous study is by Robert Rosenthal, Pygmalion in the Classroom, showing the beneficial
effects of positive expectations of others
The stable patterns of behaviour and internal states that determine how an individual reacts
and interacts with others.
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