MGT 2070 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Collectivism, Comfort Zone, Job Satisfaction
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Chapter 6: Culture and Styles of Management
Management Tasks and Cultural Values
a. Goals and objectives
b. Actions needed to achieve them
a. Division and co-ordination of work and resources
b. Ensure effectiveness and efficiency
a. Hiring/allocating employees
b. Enabling employees to fulfill potential within the company
a. Leading the organization/employees towards goals
a. Monitor performance
b. Includes ways used to prevent/resolve problems
c. Differences reflect relations between managers and employees, as well as the way
performance is perceived.
The Effect of Cultural Values on Management (Model of Culture)
Based on 8 principles:
1. Time Focus
1. Time is linear
2. One activity at a time
3. Concerns are focused on shorter terms, meeting immediate needs
4. Dislike moving away from schedule
5. Focused on information rather than people
1. Focus on several tasks
2. Less dependent on detailed information
3. Schedules are approximate and flexible
4. People take priority over schedules; relationship building
5. Trouble respecting timings
2. Time Orientation
Important during negotiations.
1. Value upholding tradition
2. Changing in long-term time frames
3. Ie: Far east countries, India, Iran, Latin America
1. Quick results
2. Short-term gain
3. Ie: America
1. Long-term benefits
2. Work and resources are divided to meet long-term results
3. Ie: Latin America
The extent to which the less powerful members of a society expect and accept that
power is distributed unequally.
1. Inequality is given and no attempt is made to make any compensations on s
socio-economic level for intellectual or physical inequalities.
2. Autocratic/paternalistic planning
3. Organizational structure is tightly controlled
4. Subordinates expect managers to take initiative to train, develop, and promote.
5. Leaders are expected to behave in ways that reinforce their importance.
6. Employees like being closely supervised, and prefer personal control of
superiors rather than impersonal control systems.
1. Correction of inequalities through legal, political, and economic means.
2. During negotiations, title, status, and formal position have less influence
3. Hierarchy exists to facilitate the relations between the people in an organization
4. Managers are more participative, less directive, and often consult employees
before making decisions.
5. Informal structures based on expertise.
1. Encourages employees to take responsibility for the survival of the organization
2. Stimulates innovation in developing markets
3. Focused on acquiring wealth, performance, and achieving ambitions.
1. Job satisfaction has to do with working in a pleasant environment, rather than
2. Focused on quality of life, relationships, and consensus.
3. Tension arises in competitive industries
1. A spontaneous expression of what is conceived to be a "given" in the human
2. Working for the moment and living the experience, rather than achievement.
3. Promise of future rewards while maintaining social harmony is the motivator.
4. Planning is done by developing measurable, time-framed action steps
5. Staffing depends on ability to carry out tasks rather than worth.
6. Expert and competent managers are effective
7. Performance management is systematic.
1. A kind of activity which results in accomplishments that are measurable by
standards conceived to be external in the acting individual.
2. Action and achieving goals
3. Recognition of achievement and promotion are motivators.
4. Planning is done with strong focus on mission and vision
5. Staffing depends on personal and social criteria as well.
6. Managers with compatible personal philosophies, values, and styles are
What is to be regarded as public or private space.
Proximity of people in conversation
1. Individualistic and systematic forms of planning
2. Organizing centres around tasks
3. Transparent staffing procedures
4. Manager and employee work spaces are separate
5. Explicit forms of performance management
1. Group-oriented forms of planning
2. Organizing centred on relationships
3. Staffing procedures are implicit
4. Location/size of workspace does not reflect position
5. Informal measures of performance
7. Communication and context
Framework/background/surrounding circumstances in which communication or an
event takes place.
1. Explicit, detailed, quantifiable, and information-based planning.
2. Task-responsibility guidelines are explicit.
3. Conflict is depersonalized.
4. Ie: America, Switzerland, Germany
1. Planning is implicit and less detailed.
2. Job descriptions/responsibilities are implicit and understood according to the
3. Managers get work done through other by giving attention to relationships and
4. Conflicts must be resolved before work progresses.
5. Ie: Japan, Arabia, Latin America
Concerns the relationship between the individual and the group
1. "I" over "we"
2. Individual goals, initiative, achievement predominate
3. Less distinction between in-groups and out-groups
4. Do not hesitate to acquire and change friends
5. Favor relationships with family relatives
6. Fear of losing self-respect discourages deviance from standards.
Includes ways used to prevent/resolve problems performance is perceived. The effect of cultural values on management (model of culture) Past: value upholding tradition, changing in long-term time frames. Ie: far east countries, india, iran, latin america. Ie: america: long-term benefits, work and resources are divided to meet long-term results. The extent to which the less powerful members of a society expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. What is to be regarded as public or private space. Private: organizing centres around tasks, transparent staffing procedures, manager and employee work spaces are separate, explicit forms of performance management. Public: group-oriented forms of planning, organizing centred on relationships, staffing procedures are implicit, location/size of workspace does not reflect position. Informal measures of performance: communication and context. Framework/background/surrounding circumstances in which communication or an event takes place. Low-context: explicit, detailed, quantifiable, and information-based planning, task-responsibility guidelines are explicit, conflict is depersonalized. Concerns the relationship between the individual and the group.