Chapter 6: Culture and Styles of Management
Management Tasks and Cultural Values
a. Goals and objectives
b. Actions needed to achieve them
a. Division and co-ordination of work and resources
b. Ensure effectiveness and efficiency
a. Hiring/allocating employees
b. Enabling employees to fulfill potential within the company
a. Leading the organization/employees towards goals
a. Monitor performance
b. Includes ways used to prevent/resolve problems
c. Differences reflect relations between managers and employees, as well as the way
performance is perceived.
The Effect of Cultural Values on Management (Model of Culture)
Based on 8 principles:
1. Time Focus
1. Time is linear
2. One activity at a time
3. Concerns are focused on shorter terms, meeting immediate needs
4. Dislike moving away from schedule
5. Focused on information rather than people
1. Focus on several tasks
2. Less dependent on detailed information
3. Schedules are approximate and flexible
4. People take priority over schedules; relationship building
5. Trouble respecting timings
2. Time Orientation
Important during negotiations.
1. Value upholding tradition
2. Changing in long-term time frames
3. Ie: Far east countries, India, Iran, Latin America
1. Quick results
2. Short-term gain 3. Ie: America
1. Long-term benefits
2. Work and resources are divided to meet long-term results
3. Ie: Latin America
The extent to which the less powerful members of a society expect and accept that
power is distributed unequally.
1. Inequality is given and no attempt is made to make any compensations on s
socio-economic level for intellectual or physical inequalities.
2. Autocratic/paternalistic planning
3. Organizational structure is tightly controlled
4. Subordinates expect managers to take initiative to train, develop, and promote.
5. Leaders are expected to behave in ways that reinforce their importance.
6. Employees like being closely supervised, and prefer personal control of
superiors rather than impersonal control systems.
1. Correction of inequalities through legal, political, and economic means.
2. During negotiations, title, status, and formal position have less influence
3. Hierarchy exists to facilitate the relations between the people in an organization
4. Managers are more participative, less directive, and often consult employees
before making decisions.
5. Informal structures based on expertise.
1. Encourages employees to take responsibility for the survival of the organization
2. Stimulates innovation in developing markets
3. Focused on acquiring wealth, performance, and achieving ambitions.
1. Job satisfaction has to do with working in a plea