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Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHR487
Professor
Lesley Harrington

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Psychology 104 Chapter 2 – Methods  •  Louis Hay Ł everything that has happened to us, accidents and diseases, is the results of our choices to think  o claims she cured cancer through changing her thoughts o doesn’t believe in science – it is just another way to look at life  • there are lots of way to test Louis Hay’s theories but they can be good or bad  • “it is not what man of science believes, but how and why he believes”  Empiricism: How to Know Stuff • problems in ancient Greek were solved between two kinds of doctors: dogmatists and empiricists o dogmatists Ł means beliefs, best way to understand illness was to develop theories about body’s functions   dogmatism Ł describes tendency for people to cling to assumptions o empiricists Ł means experience, best way to understand illness was to observe them   empiricism Ł describes the belief that accurate knowledge can be through observations  Scientific Method • empiricism is essential element  • scientific method Ł set of principles about appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence  • we should have ideas about the world, then gather empirical evidence and modify the idea to fit with evidence • theory Ł the idea, hypothetical explanation of natural things  • hypothesis Ł a falsifiable prediction made by theory  o some things can’t be judged wrongly using scientific method  • William Ockham Ł rule of parsimony: starting a theory as simple as possible and make it more complex later – “keep it simple, stupid”  • doesn’t mean that observations are consistence, it proves your hypothesis  o when evidence is consistent with theory, it increases our feel confidence but does not mean right  • best way to learn about truth: develop theories, derive hypotheses, test it and gather evidence, modify theories with evidence  Art of Looking • Eadweard Muybridge Ł develop a camera for taking photos in rapid succession and showed if horses gallop on 4 or 2 legs  • our eyes allow us to see a lot of things, not a lot of things, and wrong things  • empirical method Ł set of rules/techniques for observation  • method Ł refers to technologies that enhance our senses • problems dealing with studying humans: o complexity Ł nothing is more complex than human brain  o variability Ł people have different fingerprints – they don’t do, say, think, or feel th
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