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Chapter 11,12,14,15,16,18,19

ANTHR 101 Chapter 11,12,14,15,16,18,19: anthro 101

Course Code
Francois Larose

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Anthro 101 April 10, 2015
Directed change
Applied anthropology:
The use of anthropological knowledge and techniques for the purpose of solving
“practical” problems - how we solve everyday problems
First used to protect vulnerable native cultures
concept of change could be detrimental
Why applied anthro?
The pace of change is accelerating in most societies
Globalization affects cultures economically, politically, and socially
We can see our impact on other cultures, whether intentionally or not
ex. conditions placed on foreign aid
Globalization is another form of colonization
Ex. Coke, Starbucks - it is what these countries represent
Forms of Globalization
Political expansion (imperialism)
Religious imperialism
Ex. aid packages come with religious or moral obligations
Economic imperialism (Third world)
Exploited for their resources
Cultural imperialism
Mass media and telecommunications
Biological imperialism?
Human Genome Diversity Project
Consequences of globalization
Loss of traditional cultures
Cultural diversity: worst thing for the free market - greater diversity of goods/
Loss of land for subsistence farmers
Increase in poverty-related diseases
Increase in wealth-related diseases
New meanings of family, marriage, and kinship
New means of social integration
Need for environmental adaptation
Agents of change
Environmental change
Transportation technologies
Anthropology and Culture Change
What can anthro offer to the future?
An understanding of the impact of technology on society, culture, and the

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A more global perspective on current problems (pop. control, etc)
Emphasize the need for cultural diversity
The importance of cultural diversity
Humanity’s cultural heritage
Music, food, engineering, architecture
Cultural knowledge is best protected by members of the culture itself
Diversity of experiences are essential to problem solving
The first part of the final exam will consist of 50 multiple choice questions based on the material
covered after the second midterm including lecture notes and the readings.
The first part of the exam will cover the following chapters in the textbook:
• 11-12-14-15-16-18-19
• You need to know all the content of these chapters except names of researchers
or names of specific cultures.
• Material for all the above chapters will be on the exam even if we did not cover
it in class.
It will also include the class notes starting with Patterns of Subsistence.
The second part of the exam will consist of 50 multiple-choice
Textbook Notes
Chapter 11: Economics
Other aspects of culture that affect the economies:
the presence or absence of social inequality (class and gender)
Family and kinship groups
The political system
Other requirements for food and energy:
Defense against external threats
The transmission of knowledge and skills
Reproduction and social control
Foraging or food collecting is a food-getting strategy that obtains wild plants and
animal resources through food gathering, hunting, scavenging, fishing
Called hunter gatherers
Live in the marginal areas of the earth: deserts, arctic, dense tropical forests, that
do not allow easy exploitation by modern agricultural technologies. Over the last
few hundred years, approximate 5 million people were foragers
Foragers help anthros understand aspects of human life in the past
Three reasons to be cautious about drawing inferences about present ones:
1. Early foragers lived in almost all types of environments including bountiful
ones, incomparable too many living in worst ones today
2. contemporary foragers are not relics of the past, And have evolved, also
variation in economic behavior and social structure showing recent forgers
have responded to differences and local environmental conditions
3. contemporary forgers have interacted with societies not existing more than
10,000 years ago (agriculturalist, pastoralists lists, powerful state societies)

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ex. Trade between foragers and agriculturalist
Recently foraging people have also dependent on agriculture, Commercial
activities, and trade
In Australia, before Europeans came, aboriginals all foragers -Australian aborigines
ex. Gibson desert of Western Australia (Ngatatjara): Desert environment, hot
summer, sparsely populated, daily cooked meal eaten in evening
Traditionally nomadic, And Isolated campsites not near water to avoid
frightening game, clusters of groups (80ish people)
General features of foragers: table 11.1 PG 250
Live in small communities, nomadic lifestyle, no land rights, no class
differentiation, no specialized official’s, division of labor based on age and
gender (men hunt large marine and land animals and fish, Women gather wild
More food from gathering than hunting, so women contribute more than men to
subsistence, but this is untrue for most food collecting societies
Now most from fishing, where “foragers” comes from, therefore men contribute
Do not spend much time collecting food = more leisure time than agriculturalists
Variability among societies WRT traits
Heavy dependence on fishing: + likelihood of bigger, More permanent
communities, more social inequality then those dependent on game and
Higher population densities, food storage, occupational specialization,
resource ownership, slavery, competitiveness
Some: three tiered system = high class, commoners, slave
Typical foragers, dependence on fishing associated with a population
density and settlement size
> 75% fishing dependence = 350 people, < 25% dependence = 50 people
Food production: began approximate 10,000 years ago
Began to cultivate, then domesticate plants and animals
With domestication of food sources, people got control a certain natural processes
such as animal breeding and plant seeding
Three major types of food production systems: horticulture, intensive agriculture,
Horticulture: growing up of crops using simple tools and methods without
permanently cultivated fields
Hand tools, No fertilization or irrigation
Two kinds of Horticulture:
Dependence on extensive (shifting) cultivation: land worked for short
periods, then left idle for years. When land not cultivated, wild plants to
grow and later cleared with slash and burn techniques, returning
nutrients to soil
Dependence on long growing tree crops, also no permanent cultivation
Most do not only rely on crops for food, Also Hunt or fish, some are
nomadic, some raise domestic animals (small)
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