NUTR100 Chapter 1-7: Chapters 1-7

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Published on 8 Nov 2011
September 14th, 2010
Continue from lecture 1
Red flags for Junk Science
-quackery, too good to be true, dire warnings, promise quick fix, simple
conclusions from complex studies, recommendations based on studies published
without peer review, list of good and bad foods
Ex: Read through slide on Ànatrim – flesh loss product as told on BBC. Proposes
dramatic changes, and contains extracts from natural plants which do not exist.
CARS Check List
C – credibility – authorship, organization, peer review
A – accuracy – timely-ness, completeness
R –reasonableness – fairness, objectivity, moderate-ness
S – supportability – bibliography, corroboration (validation), external consistency
Who can you trust – experts who are educated and credentials are indicated,
gov`t organizations, example: Health Canada
Topics covered: components of a healthy diet, nutrition recommendations (DRIs),
food labels, Canada`s food guide
Components of a healthy diet:
- Adequate: provides enough (but not too much) energy, nutrients, fibre to
maintain health
- Moderate: contains the right amounts of foods to maintain a healthy body
- Balanced: contains the right combo of foods to provide a balance of nutrients
- Varied: eating many different types of food each day
Nutrient Density: An adequate and moderate diet is one that is
– relative amount of nutrients per amount of energy. Ex: hamburger vs.
chocolate bar, hamburger is more nutrient dense, providing the maximum
amount of nutrients per unit of energy.
Determining Nutrient Needs:
* Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) nutrient guidelines on what recommended
intakes are on a nutrient level, nutritional recommendations for Canada & USA
(ex. Vitamin D supplementation in North America)
- DRIs consist of 4 values:
For most nutrients,
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oEstimated Average Requirements (EAR) – average daily intake
level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half of the people 50%
in a particular category (categorized btwn age groups), used to
determine RDA of a nutrient, source: scientific studies, research and
evidence to set EAR.
oRecommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) – the average daily
intake level required to meet the needs of 97% - 98% of people in a
particular category
o Adequate Intake (AI) – statistical term: recommended average daily
intake level for a nutrient, based on observations and estimates,
***used when EAR & RDA not established, AI used often also when
physiological limitations prevent RDA. eg., calcium, vitamin D and
Vitamin K, fluoride
o Tolerable Upper Intake level (UL) – HIGHEST average daily intake
level that is NOT likely to have adverse effects on the health of most
people, note: consumption of a nutrient at levels above the UL is NOT
For energy & macromolecules
o Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) – Average dietary intake
(kcal) to maintain energy balance, based on age, gender,
weight, height, level of physical activity
o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
describes portion of energy intake that should come from each
macronutrient, expressed as ranges (% of total energy) with upper
and lower boundary
ex: Nutrient: *carbohydrate – AMDR: 45-65% Fat – AMDR: 20-35%
*Protein –AMDR: 10-35%
- Designing a healthful diet may include:
o Food Labels
o Dietary Guidelines
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o Food Guides
o Diet Plans
o In Canada, food labels are required on most products:
§ Ingredient List (req`d)
· Ingredients listed by weight from most to least
· Presented on pre-packaged foods
· Source of allergy information
· Source of certain nutrient information
§ Nutrition FactsPanel (req`d)
· Contains required nutritional information, used in
planning a healthy diet
1. Nutrition Facts Table can be used to make
informed choices by: helping choose foods that meet
your needs, compare similar foods, look for foods with
more or less of a specific nutrient, selecting foods for
special diets, note: some do not have a nutrition facts
table: eggs, vegetables, fruits, etc.
2. Serving size and servings per container, can be
used to plan appropriate amounts of food,
standardized serving sizes allow for comparison among
similar products.
3. Percent Daily Value (%DV): describes how much a
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