Generalizations: behavior that occurs in the presence of an S that is similar to that used
in training. That’s is that a class of stimuli develop a stimulus control over the behavior.
This chapter discusses the strategies that are use to program for generalization of
behavior. These are:
Reinforcing the occurrence of generalization: This is to reinforce the behavior when it
occurs outside the training setting in the presence of a relevant stimuli. The drawback to
this is that you can’t always provide reinforcement for every instance of generalization
(i.e. a teacher can’t go home and praise the person every time he says please for help)
Training skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement: this is a solution
to the above drawback. If you can’t provide reinforcement all the time then find
something that s naturally reinforcing (i.e. disable person plays a sport that he enjoys).
But it is not always possible either ( a person who learn sign language may now chat with
those that understand the language and get natural social reinforcement but cannot chat
with anyone who doesn’t understand it)
Modifying contingencies of reinforcement and punishment in the natural
environment. This is useful if the trainer cannot provide reinforcement or the natural
reinforcement do not exist. In this case, the trainer might train other in the natural
environment who interact with the client to provide reinforcement (thus modifying the
contingencies or what provides the reinforcement). Another problem is that sometime a
behavior that is reinforced in the training but is punished outside the training situation. In
this case, we can remove the punishment from the environment (again modifying the
contingencies the thing that lead to punishment). Example is in class you interact with
disable people and teacher likes you but outside people make fun of you (punishing).
When these teasers were removed (punishment gone), interaction increased.
So far, all of these involved reinforcing the behavior OUTSIDE the training situations.
There are some that could be done during the training session to promote generalization.
Incorporate a variety of relevant stimulus situations in the training: This is often
called stimulus exemplars: The basic idea is that the more range of stimuli your are
exposed to (stimuli exemplars) the more likely the behavior is to be generalized to other
situation. Example is getting a smile from 10 different people when you high five them
then you are more likely to high everyone. Often you don’t exactly know howm any
exemplers you will need. General case programming): during training, present a
sufficient variety of members of a stimulus class (antecedents) to ensure that the person
can perform the task ( the washing machine example ▯ different kinds of washing
machines used in training helps in generalization)
Incorporating common stimuli: incorporate stimuli that are more likely to be seen in
outside the training. In other words if the stimuli used in the training are somewhat
similar to what the generalized situation this is more likely to generalize now (i.e. roleplay with a woman and you are more likely now to handle any woman outside the
training same goes to men).
Teaching a range of functionally equivalent responses: Function equivalent responss
refers to many different responses that result in the same outcome (i.e. opening the door
using key or ringing the bell ▯ both leads to opening the door but now you can