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Chapter 14


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Taka Masuda

CHAPTER 8 EMOTIONS - Ilongot, an indigenous tribe in the Northern Philippines- key emotion that they have is liget, meaning (approximation/combination of anger, passion, wellspring of energy, and when one is envious of another). It is what allows them to be alive/work hard. It is considered to be found in striving youth ( semen) and energetic hunters and violent men. Justification for head hunting rituals ( go around village slashing heads off=increase liget) What Is an Emotion? The James-Lange Theory of Emotion- James, our emotions are the physiological responses to stimuli in our world- Lange, these physiological responses were products of our autonomic nervous system - our bodies respond to stimuli by preparing us to react in a survival-facilitating way. Our emotions are our bodily changes that signal how we should behave. Each emotions represents a particular body state ( fear=increase heart rate, blood rate increase, breathing etc). Emotions are these physical changes that makes us feel human. Thus, emotions are all about physiological pattern and nothing else. It also suggests that people in all cultures should have the same emotional experiences. It provides a more of evolutionary origin to emotions. They are all innate as having the response of fear when you see a bear might help our ancestor survive. Thus, emotions are UNIVERSAL. The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion- emotions are primarily our interpretations of bodily responses ( i.e. there is other way to interpret the increase in heart rate other then fear. You see a bear vs you are in front of an attractive lady). You can identify the two different roles by disentangling them (they did this by controlling the source f physiological and interpretation of these changes) (Schacter & Singer, 1962) participants completed a questionnaire in a situation where arousal would be interpreted as either euphoria(confederate joked around with them) or anger ( confederate pissed them off). - also manipulated amount of physiological arousal experienced- placebo, given saline and truthfully told the injection wouldn’t have any side effects on their state of arousal- epinephrine-informed, epinephrine-uninformed, epinephrine-misinformed (told it would decrease their arousal) - Predicted that in the last two conditions (underlined above), where participants would experience arousal but wouldn’t know why, would look to the situation in their environment to interpret their feelings. - Expectation: Placebo, would experience little arousal and thus little emotion- epinephrine- informed, would experience little emotion because they would attribute it to the side effects of the injection - Results: In general, results supported predictions- suggests that our emotions are grounded in the belief system that shape our interpretations ( i.e. epinephrine informed vs. epinephrine misinformed) people might interpret physiological signals differently across cultures as their culture causes them to have different interpretations of world around them. We look for cues in our environment to help us label our physical emotions. The RoleAppraisals in Emotions- the emotional response isn’t determined directly by the event itself; our appraisal of what the event means leads to the response- appraisals are the way we evaluate events in terms of their relevance to our well-being- given the overall similarity of humans’ environments and basic needs, there should be a great deal of similarity in the ways people appraise events across cultures ( suggest some form of universality) Overall, this theory argues that Universally similar appraisals should lead to universally similar emotional responses - cultures differ in the way people understand what the situation means and its significance; differences in beliefs and values will shape appraisals Does Emotional Experience Vary Across Cultures? Emotions and Facial Expressions- facial expressions often appear rather reflexive- same facial expressions that adults make are made by very young infants, even those born blind Evidence for Cultural Universals in Facial Expression - Darwin, if chimpanzees made facial expressions that resembled those of humans, it would be highly suggestive of universality - noticed striking parallels in the expressions that various primates made with those that humans made (for some emotional responses)- (Ekman & Friesen, 1971) took 1000s of photos of people posing 6 different emotional expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise) - shown a set of photos most easily recognized byAmericans to individuals in other countries and asked to select which of a set of 6 terms best matched the expression - emotional correctly identified in 80-90% of photos- however, the 5 cultures weren’t all that different from each other to begin with ( industrialized, educated , etc) - Ekman, Fore of New Guinea had virtually no exposure to Western ways- told to imagine a story and to make a corresponding facial expression - smiled when happy, frowned when sad, scowled when angry etc ( just like us) - Proposed a set of basic emotions that are universally recognized - anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust. Still debate as to other emotions is also universal. Evidence that pride ( involves the wholes body) is also universal. Evidence for Cultural Variability in Facial Expressions - success rates for identifying American-posed faces was best among English speakers, then other Indo-European language speakers, non-Indo-European language speakers, and lastly preliterate societies- people are ~9% more accurate in judging facial expression of people from their own culture (on average, 58% accuracy overall). Thus, there is a large universal component to facial expression but a small culturally variable/specific component to emotions. We are better at recognizing facial expression of our own kind. The more people are exposed to another culture, the more accurate their judgments were Another different is the part of the face that we attend to. Japanese focus on the eyes while American/westerns focus on the mouth area and some eyes. (cultural based variations) Cultural Display Rules- culturally specific rules that govern which facial expressions are appropriate in a given situation and how intensely they should exhibit it (Arab: man should not express too much emotions vs. the new guinea people who express a lot of emotions. Italians tend to be very loud when expressing their pain) - even though people in different cultures vary in how strongly they express certain emotions, it is possible that they are all experiencing the same underlying feeling- presupposes that emotional experiences are unaffected by facial expressions - Study: (Ekman, 1972) showed American and Japanese participants highly stressful films either alone or with an older experimenter sitting beside them - alone, Americans and Japanese made similar facial expressions- not along,Americans showed similar facial expressions, Japanese tended to smile or hide their feelings with their hands. (showing that people from collective culture tend to have more restrained emotional expressions) - Ritualized displays, facial expressions that are expressed in some cultures but not in others because of cultural display rules. e.g. Indians express embarrassment by tongue biting, not recognized in America, represents a voluntarily produced rather than reflexive expression Facial Feedback Hypothesis- proposes that we use facial expressions when inferring out feelings- (Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988) had participants hold a pen in their mouth - on group had to hold it without having the pen touch their lips, a second had to hold it without having
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