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Chapter 16

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Temitope Oriola

Chapter 16: organized crime • Organize crime:  Refers to those self­perpetuating, structured, and disciplined associations of  individuals (has to be more then 3) or groups, combined together for the purpose of obtaining  monetary or commercial gains or profits, wholly or in part of illegal means, while protecting their  activities through a pattern of graft and corruption and numerous offences ( have to be more then  1 offences not just people getting together for just 1 offence) • Traits of criminal organization (the core traits are 13,5,11 but you just need 6/11 to be an  criminal organization) 1) collaboration of more then two people 2) each with appointed task 3) prolonged period of time 4) have discipline and control 5) susted of serious criminal offences 6) At the international level 7) violence used as intimidation 8) using commercial or business structure 9) Money laudering 10) Influences on polits, media, judicial authorizes 11) pursuit of profit and or power CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZED CRIME (1):  Can be divided into 4 categories (structural/Organizational, institutional, commercial, and behavioral Structural/organizational characteristics (i.e. hells angel) • Two or more people involved (more offender=more change of crimes) • Conspire to commit illegal acts that are serious in nature for whole purpose of profit ( legal business also commit illegal acts but in the context of legal business) • Asystematics pattern to the relationship of the offender: not only have multiple offenders but also must have a systematic pattern to the relationship among these offenders (this pattern separate organized crime from something like a mob). Relationship could be kin, friend, business ties, while the structure of the organization could be hierarchical (power relation among the offers involved) or systematical (specialized task of or resources available to the conspirators. There are two types of network: associational networks (based on family/ethnicity/blood=Italian mafia) vs. entrepreneurial model (bond dependent on business interests (more common in modern times) • Specialized division of labor (in hierarchical model that depend on the position you hold in the power structure vs in symmetrical network model it is based on skills you have. • Insolation against enforcement and persecution: carry out execution by the lowest of the member’s vs. the top guys in the hierarchical model. 2) Keeping the identities of different group for different groups separate so if one gets caught the other part of the chain is not effected 3  oath of secrecy • Specialized modes and channels of communication: very guarded in communication. Make sure police or just checking people for wires does not interpret it. • Transnational organized crime in scope: crime conducted across borders. Institutional characteristics: • Designed to last for Prolonged period of time beyond the life of current members (line of succession are already chosen or • Career criminals: offenders are by career criminal. If they don’t have one they make you do one Chapter 16: organized crime • Motivations: financial and material benefits (different then terrorist in this respect as not interested in political or social change • Sophistication: Conduct activities in a methodical, systematic, secret fashion.Also use amazing technology like cybercrime now a days and hackers. • Limited or exclusive membership: traditionally based on ethnicity, nationality (Sicilian, Japanese, Colombian etc.), race and so on. Now, it is just based on the ability to contribute to the accumulation of profits. Membership is not just a symbol you get a lot of power with it as well. • Recruitment: often-new members come in if a certain skills are needed. • Secrecy: protect the secrecy of the group through, violence, intimidation, insulation, rules and codes of conduct Commercial characteristics: • Profit oriented criminal activities: any activities that involve making money is a fair game and thus distinguish them from crime of passion, vandalism, and terrorism • Consensual criminal activities: where no victim exist but rather 2 people come together to do illegal things such providing as good and services that are illegal. But they can harm individual like if you take drugs. • Predatory crimes: victims suffers a direct physical, emotional, or financial consequences such as extortion, human trafficking, money laundering • Involves in both legal and illegal activates: Legal are ones in which they are legal to cell but might have taxes on them, or be expensive or have a lot of regulation. Often create their own business to launder money. • Constant demand for good and services: Many organized crime activities result from the demand by the ‘law-abiding’ citizenry for illegal goods and services such as illicit drugs, contraband cigarettes and alcohol, and prostitution.Because goods and services are illegal and demand is strong, a very high price can be charged. • Monopoly: Legal competitors are excluded because the goods and services are illegal. Illegal competitors are excluded by force or threat of force. seek monopoly over everything (hell angel in montreal) and use violence or any means necessary to get it. • Tactics to support criminal activates: is what separates them from un-organized crimes. Use violence, intimidation, corruption of often official, and money laundering to support the production, distribution and marketing of products and services. Often use violence to discipline the internal group (hells angel killing its members) Behavioral characteristics: • Rationality: calculate the positive and negative of each decision they make and respond to supply and demand like a normal business would (i.e. making careful decision to ensure everything work great in running, production of good and services. • Contempt of civil society: have to rebel against the normal societal rules otherwise you are considered a pussy, and often victimized. Like the vory z kone of the russia and the Italian mafia • Rules, regulation and codes: just like a legitimate business, they have rules and regulation that are expected to be followed, expect loyalty and secrecy etc. • Discipline: to make sure the codes and rules are followed and often used violence (death as well). Dominate organized crime genre and groups: th • Italian: In North America since the late 19  century. Had a formal network covering much of  North America. Still powerful, but has many other competitors. Have hierarchical system and  family based system. Chapter 16: organized crime • Tiads and other Asian groups:  Triad societies have existed in China for centuries. Have spread  to many other countries so they have global links. Very active in global drug smuggling. Other  groups from Vietnam and Japan (e.g. Yakuza).   • Outlaw motor gangs:  Tightly organized groups that have a national presence in the US. Have  been involved in a great deal of violence. HELLS ANGELS: Dominant group in the US and  Canada like cities like montreal. • colombian and south American: Major activity is drug distribution. Countries such as Colombia  are major drug producers. Crimes like kidnapping also common. Example is FARC­EP, which is  a criminal organization that is fi
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