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Chapter 13

SOC260 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Visible Minority, Human Capital, Charles Avison


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC260
Professor
stephen speake
Chapter
13

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Conclusion: Equality, Politics, Platforms, and Policy Issues
Class, age, gender, ethnicity, and race are characterized by power, oppression, opportunity hoarding,
and exploitation.
Purposes of Part II:
To show how outcomes of inequality in Canada are effected by class, age, gender, ethnicity and
race.
o Showed how certain groups are disadvantaged compared to others
To identify issues that need to have more research done on them
o Much available research is lacking in 3 ways:
Little of it has considered whether/how class, age, gender, and ethnicity and race
work together to creating systems of advantage and disadvantage
There is a lack of research that considers how age and social time effect inequality
More research is needed on strategies that agents use to conform or resist the
social-structural influences on their lives
If we are going to get rid of inequality in Canada, many things need to change. Assumptions and
ideologies about gender, class, ethnicity, race, and age need to be challenged
The processes through which production, distribution, and reproduction are organized need to
change
Social policies need to be reformed
o Policy-makers could integrate systems of inequality better into policies and consider them
more
o Give up the idea that gender, class, age, ethnic, or racial ‘neutrality’ is desirable or helpful
in policy, and recognize that this neutrality actually reproduces systems of inequality
Neutral social policy
Was supposed to be a response to policies that explicitly treated people of certain groups unfairly,
so it initially had good intentions
o E.g. women used to not be able to own property but not the law is neutral so both men
and women and control their own possessions
But adherence to formal inequality without actual equality actually leads to inequalitytreating
people who are unalike in the same way actual increases differences
o E.g. Canadian family law: assumes that moms and dads are equally able to contribute to
the financial support of their children. This is technically true. Because of this, spousal
support programs a usually short-term and assume that people can support themselves
economically after a short period of time. However, women are actually at a disadvantage
in labour markets and aren’t likely to be able to support themselves to the same extent
that men can.
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CONSERVATIVE PARTY
Seniors
Home accessibility tax credit of 15% of costs up to $10,000/year
Lower the mandatory withdrawal amount for RRIF (Registered Retirement Income Funds)
Child Care
Implemented the Universal Child Care Benefitprovides $160/month per child up to age 6 and $60/month per
child aged 6-17
Extend parental leave for federal workers from 12 months 18 months
Health
Won’t renew the $41 billion Canada Health Accord
$31.5 million in funding for a plan to fight dementia
LIBERAL PARTY
Seniors
restore 65 years as the age of being eligible for Old Age Security
Increase the Guaranteed Income Supplement by 10% for single, low-income seniors
Introduce a new Seniors Price Index to make sure Old Age Security and the GIS can be financed
Propose the keep the Home Accessibility Tax Credit and pension splitting
Child Care
Replace the Universal Child Care Benefit, the Child Tax Credit, and the National Child Benefit Supplement with a
complete Canada Child Benefitwould base payments by household income: lowest incomes would get
$6,400/year per child under 6 and $5,400/year for children 6-17
Extend Employment Insurance (EI) benefits up to 18 months at lower benefit levels
Health
$3 billion in funding over 4 years to the national health care system, which would target home care, the high cost
of drugs, and mental health facilities
negotiate better prices for prescription drugs
NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY (NDP)
Seniors
restore 65 years as the age that people are eligible for receiving Old Age Security
$400 million/year to the GIS
extend the CPP and the Quebec Pension Plan
Universal drug coverage
5000 nursing home beds
more home care funding for 41,000 seniors
$40 million to create a national Alzheimer’s and Dementia strategy
Child Care
1 million new day care spacesspecifically, 164,000 spaces in Toronto and 110,000 in BC
keep the Universal Child Care Benefit and increase the National Child Benefit Supplement
Health
$1.8 billion over 4 years to ensure universal access to prescriptions
$40 million over 4 years to develop a national Alzheimer’s and Dementia strategy
$500 million to expand smaller-scale health care clinics and to hire more health care providers
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