Theory: A well-supported and wide-ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical
Statistical Significance: A measure of the possibility that the results were due to chance.
Clinical Trials: Studies on humans.
Placebo: An innocuous, nondrug substance made to look like the drug being tested.
Informed Consent: Lists all the possible harmful effects of the drug or treatment and must
be signed before a person can take part in a study.
Biomedical model of illness: In this model, a symptom of illness is considered to have an
underlying pathology that will hopefully, but not inevitably, be cured through medical
- Deals with objective facts, and assuming a direct causal relationship between
illness, its symptoms, and adjustments outcomes.
- Allows little room for subjectivity
- Reductionist The basic idea that mind, matter (body) and human behavior can
all be reduced to, and explained at, the level of cells, neural activity or
o Ignores evidence that different people respond in different ways to the
same underlying disease.
- There is one type of “stuff” that can be perceived objectively and subjectively.
- Ex. Many illnesses have organic underlying causes, but unique individual
responses due to the action of the mind. (Subjective)
Mind and body separate dualist / A mechanistic view point
1 Chapter 2b
WHO Definition of Health: “State of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing,
and … not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”
- Individuals deserving of a positive state, overall feeling of wellbeing, fully
Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Health
Collectivist approach: The community or family works together for the wellbeing of all.
Individualistic approach: Responsibility of the individual; behavior driven by individual
needs and wants.
Holistic: Concerned with the whole being and its wellbeing, rather than addressing the
physical and observable.
Seven Dimensions of Health
1. Physical Health: Physical characteristics Body size, shape, sensory activities,
susceptibility to disease and disorders, body functioning, recuperative ability.
2. Social Health: Capacity of satisfying interpersonal r