BIOL 1080 Chapter Notes - Chapter The Local Support & Defense Mechanism: Natural Killer Cell, Mucous Membrane, Vascular Permeability

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26 Aug 2017
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Week 6 Lecture 11 Readings: 3a(v)
The Local Support and Defence Mechanism:
The Body’s Defese Syste: pg. 182
Pathogens: the bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi,, parasitic worms, and prions (infectious
proteins) that cause disease
Three Lines of Defense: pg. 182
Chemical and physical surface barriers: keep the foreign organisms or molecules out of the body in
the first place
Internal cellular and chemical defenses: attack any foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell
inside the body
Immune response: destroy a specific type of foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside the
body
First line of defense (nonspecific physical and chemical surface barriers) Second line of defense
(nonspecific internal cellular and chemical defense) Third line of defense (immune response -
specific)
First Line of Defense: Physical and Chemical Barriers: pg. 183
Skin:
o provides a physical barrier to the entrance of microbes
o acidic pH discourages the growth of organisms
o sweat and oil gland secretions kill many bacteria
Mucous membrane:
o lines digestive and respiratory tracts produces sticky mucus that traps many microbes and
prevents them from fully entering the body
Tears:
o wash away irritating substances and microbes
o lysozyme kills many bacteria
Saliva:
o washes microbes from the teeth and mucous membranes of the mouth
Respiratory Tract:
o mucus traps organisms
o cilia sweep away trapped organisms
Stomach:
o acid kills organisms
Bladder:
o urine washes microbes from urethra
Second Line of Defense: Defensive Cells and Proteins, Inflammation, and Fever: pg. 184
phagocytes: specialized scavenger cells, class of WBC that engulf pathogens, damaged tissue, or
dead cells by the process of phagocytosis
Neutrophils: type of phagocyte that arrives at the site of attack before the other types of WBCs and
immediately begins to consume the pathogens (especially bacteria)
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