Chapter 5 Individuals, Groups & Organizations
Theories of Work Motivation
What is Motivation?
Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal
Basic characteristics of motivation
Effort is the 1st aspect of motivation and is the strength of the person’s work-related behaviour
Persistence exhibited by employees
Direction of the persons work-related behaviour
Do employees channel persistent effort in a way that benefits the organization?
Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker & the task and is usually self-
Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge etc.
Extrinsic Motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually applied by
someone other than the person being motivated
Pay, fringe benefits, company policies & various forms of supervision etc,
Self Determination Theory: A motivation theory that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or
When people are motivated by intrinsic factors they are in control of their motivation = Autonomous
When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward, their motivation is
externally controlled = Controlled Motivation
Performance: The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the
Motivation contributes to performance but so do other factors such as personality, task understanding,
persistence of effort etc.
Two kinds of Intelligence also contributes to performance
General Cognitive Ability: A person’s basic information processing abilities and cognitive resources
Reflects persons overall capacity and efficiency for processing info & includes cognitive abilities such
as verbal, numerical, spatial etc.
Usually measured by aptitude tests
Research shows that general cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job
performance in all types of jobs
Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manages ones own & other’s feelings & emotions
Ability to perceive and express emotion, understand, and manage emotions
John Meyer & Peter Salovey developed EI model….
1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself & others
2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking
3. Understanding emotions, emotional language & the signals conveyed by emotions
4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
Person is able to regulate, adjust & change his/her own emotions and other’s emotions to suit the
Research shows EI can predict job & academic performance
The Motivation-Performance Relationship
Performance can be low even when a person is highly motivated
Poor performance can be due to poor understanding of the task or luck and change factors that damage
performance of the most highly motivated people
This can work the other way where a person who has weak motivation performs well due to luck
Need Theories of Work Motivation
Need theories are motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have & the conditions under
which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance
Needs are psychological and physiological wants/desires that can be acquired by certain incentives or
achieving certain goals
Needs Behaviour Incentives & Goals
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
5 sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy beginning with most basic and compelling needs
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Streamlines Maslow’s need theory and makes some different assumption about relationship b/t needs &
1. Existence Needs: Needs satisfied by some material substance or condition.
Food, shelter, pay, safe working conditions etc.
2. Relatedness Needs: Needs satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts & feelings with
other organizational members
Open, accurate & honest interaction
3. Growth Needs: Needs fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting
Self-actualization needs and aspects of Maslow’s esteem needs that concern achievement &
*ERG doesn't assume that the lower level needs need to be achieved to move on to next set
*The more lower-level needs are gratified the more higher-level needs satisfaction is desired
*The less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level satisfaction is desired
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
A non-hierarchal need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in
particular patterns of motivation
Says needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life
experiences and exposure to selected aspects of society
Concerned with behaviour consequences of needs
Under what conditions are certain needs likely to result in certain patterns of motivation?
3 Needs that have relevance to OB…
Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal. Effort is the 1st aspect of motivation and is the strength of the person"s work-related behaviour. Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker & the task and is usually self- applied. Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated. Pay, fringe benefits, company policies & various forms of supervision etc, Self determination theory: a motivation theory that considers whether people"s motivation is autonomous or controlled. When people are motivated by intrinsic factors they are in control of their motivation = autonomous motivation. When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward, their motivation is externally controlled = controlled motivation. Performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization.